ItemRewiring Police Officer Training Networks to Reduce Forecasted Use of Force(2023-08) Pandey, Ritika; Mohler, George; Hill, James; Hasan, Mohammad Al; Mukhopadhyay, SnehasisPolice use of force has become a topic of significant concern, particularly given the disparate impact on communities of color. Research has shown that police officer involved shootings, misconduct and excessive use of force complaints exhibit network effects, where officers are at greater risk of being involved in these incidents when they socialize with officers who have a history of use of force and misconduct. Given that use of force and misconduct behavior appear to be transmissible across police networks, we are attempting to address if police networks can be altered to reduce use of force and misconduct events in a limited scope. In this work, we analyze a novel dataset from the Indianapolis Metropolitan Police Department on officer field training, subsequent use of force, and the role of network effects from field training officers. We construct a network survival model for analyzing time-to-event of use of force incidents involving new police trainees. The model includes network effects of the diffusion of risk from field training officers (FTOs) to trainees. We then introduce a network rewiring algorithm to maximize the expected time to use of force events upon completion of field training. We study several versions of the algorithm, including constraints that encourage demographic diversity of FTOs. The results show that FTO use of force history is the best predictor of trainee's time to use of force in the survival model and rewiring the network can increase the expected time (in days) of a recruit's first use of force incident by 8%. We then discuss the potential benefits and challenges associated with implementing such an algorithm in practice. ItemImproving the Robustness of Artificial Neural Networks via Bayesian Approaches(2023-08) Zhuang, Jun; Al Hasan, Mohammad; Mukhopadhyay, Snehasis; Mohler, George; Tuceryan, MihranArtificial neural networks (ANNs) have achieved extraordinary performance in various domains in recent years. However, some studies reveal that ANNs may be vulnerable in three aspects: label scarcity, perturbations, and open-set emerging classes. Noisy labeling and self-supervised learning approaches address the label scarcity issues, but most of the work couldn't handle the perturbations. Adversarial training methods, topological denoising methods, and mechanism designing methods aim to mitigate the negative effects caused by perturbations. However, adversarial training methods can barely train a robust model under the circumstance of extensive label scarcity; topological denoising methods are not efficient on dynamic data structures; and mechanism designing methods often depend on heuristic explorations. Detection-based methods devote to identifying novel or anomaly instances for further downstream tasks. Nonetheless, such instances may belong to open-set new emerging classes. To embrace the aforementioned challenges, we address the robustness issues of ANNs from two aspects. First, we propose a series of Bayesian label transition models to improve the robustness of Graph Neural Networks (GNNs) in the presence of label scarcity and perturbations in the graph domain. Second, we propose a new non-exhaustive learning model, named NE-GM-GAN, to handle both open-set problems and class-imbalance issues in network intrusion datasets. Extensive experiments with several datasets demonstrate that our proposed models can effectively improve the robustness of ANNs. ItemEnabling Real Time Instrumentation Using Reservoir Sampling and Binpacking(2023-05) Meruga, Sai Pavan Kumar; Hill, James H.; Durresi, Arjan; Zheng, Jiang YuThis thesis investigates the overhead added by reservoir sampling algorithm at different levels of granularity in real-time instrumentation of a distributed software systems. Firstly, this thesis not only discusses the inconsistencies found in the implementation of the reservoir sampling pintool in paper [ 1 ] but also provides the correct implementation. Secondly, this thesis provides the design and implementation of pintools for different level of granularities i.e., thread level, image level and routine level. Additionally, we provide quantitative comparison of performance for different sampling techniques (including reservoir sampling) at different levels of granularity. Based on the insights obtained from the empirical results, to enable real time instrumentation, we need to scale and manage the resources in the best way possible. To scale the reservoir sampling algorithm on a real time software system we integrate the traditional bin packing approach with the instrumentation in such a way that there is a decrease in the memory usage and improve the performance. The results of this research show that percentage difference between overhead added by Reservoir and Constant Sampling at a Image level granularity is 1.74%, at a Routine level granularity is 0.3% percent, at a Thread level granularity is 0.035%. Additionally, when we use bin packing technique along with reservoir sampling it normalizes the memory usage/performance runtime for Reservoir Sampling across multiple threads and different system visibility levels. ItemRegistration and Localization of Unknown Moving Objects in Markerless Monocular SLAM(2023-05) Troutman, Blake; Tuceryan, Mihran; Fang, Shiaofen; Tsechpenakis, Gavriil; Hu, QinSimultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) is a general device localization technique that uses realtime sensor measurements to develop a virtualization of the sensor's environment while also using this growing virtualization to determine the position and orientation of the sensor. This is useful for augmented reality (AR), in which a user looks through a head-mounted display (HMD) or viewfinder to see virtual components integrated into the real world. Visual SLAM (i.e., SLAM in which the sensor is an optical camera) is used in AR to determine the exact device/headset movement so that the virtual components can be accurately redrawn to the screen, matching the perceived motion of the world around the user as the user moves the device/headset. However, many potential AR applications may need access to more than device localization data in order to be useful; they may need to leverage environment data as well. Additionally, most SLAM solutions make the naive assumption that the environment surrounding the system is completely static (non-moving). Given these circumstances, it is clear that AR may benefit substantially from utilizing a SLAM solution that detects objects that move in the scene and ultimately provides localization data for each of these objects. This problem is known as the dynamic SLAM problem. Current attempts to address the dynamic SLAM problem often use machine learning to develop models that identify the parts of the camera image that belong to one of many classes of potentially-moving objects. The limitation with these approaches is that it is impractical to train models to identify every possible object that moves; additionally, some potentially-moving objects may be static in the scene, which these approaches often do not account for. Some other attempts to address the dynamic SLAM problem also localize the moving objects they detect, but these systems almost always rely on depth sensors or stereo camera configurations, which have significant limitations in real-world use cases. This dissertation presents a novel approach for registering and localizing unknown moving objects in the context of markerless, monocular, keyframe-based SLAM with no required prior information about object structure, appearance, or existence. This work also details a novel deep learning solution for determining SLAM map initialization suitability in structure-from-motion-based initialization approaches. This dissertation goes on to validate these approaches by implementing them in a markerless, monocular SLAM system called LUMO-SLAM, which is built from the ground up to demonstrate this approach to unknown moving object registration and localization. Results are collected for the LUMO-SLAM system, which address the accuracy of its camera localization estimates, the accuracy of its moving object localization estimates, and the consistency with which it registers moving objects in the scene. These results show that this solution to the dynamic SLAM problem, though it does not act as a practical solution for all use cases, has an ability to accurately register and localize unknown moving objects in such a way that makes it useful for some applications of AR without thwarting the system's ability to also perform accurate camera localization. ItemMutual Learning Algorithms in Machine Learning(2023-05) Chowdhury, Sabrina Tarin; Mukhopadhyay, Snehasis; Fang, Shiaofen; Tuceryan, MihranMutual learning algorithm is a machine learning algorithm where multiple machine learning algorithms learns from different sources and then share their knowledge among themselves so that all the agents can improve their classification and prediction accuracies simultaneously. Mutual learning algorithm can be an efficient mechanism for improving the machine learning and neural network efficiency in a multi-agent system. Usually, in knowledge distillation algorithms, a big network plays the role of a static teacher and passes the data to smaller networks, known as student networks, to improve the efficiency of the latter. In this thesis, it is showed that two small networks can dynamically and interchangeably play the changing roles of teacher and student to share their knowledge and hence, the efficiency of both the networks improve simultaneously. This type of dynamic learning mechanism can be very useful in mobile environment where there is resource constraint for training with big dataset. Data exchange in multi agent, teacher-student network system can lead to efficient learning. The concept and the proposed mutual learning algorithm are demonstrated using convolutional neural networks (CNNs) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) to recognize the pattern recognition problem using MNIST hand-writing dataset. The concept of machine learning is applied in the field of natural language processing (NLP) too. Machines with basic understanding of human language are getting increasingly popular in day-to-day life. Therefore, NLP-enabled machines with memory efficient training can potentially become an indispensable part of our life in near future. A classic problem in the field of NLP is news classification problem where news articles from newspapers are classified by news categories by machine learning algorithms. In this thesis, we show news classification implemented using Naïve Bayes and support vector machine (SVM) algorithm. Then we show two small networks can dynamically play the changing roles of teacher and student to share their knowledge on news classification and hence, the efficiency of both the networks improves simultaneously. The mutual learning algorithm is applied between homogenous algorithms first, i.e., between two Naive Bayes algorithms and two SVM algorithms. Then the mutual learning is demonstrated between heterogenous agents, i.e., between one Naïve Bayes and one SVM agent and the relative efficiency increase between the agents is discussed before and after mutual learning. ItemAutomatic Extraction of Computer Science Concept Phrases Using a Hybrid Machine Learning Paradigm(2023-05) Jahin, S M Abrar; Al Hasan, Mohammad; Fang, Shiaofen; Mukhopadhyay, SnehasisWith the proliferation of computer science in recent years in modern society, the number of computer science-related employment is expanding quickly. Software engineer has been chosen as the best job for 2023 based on pay, stress level, opportunity for professional growth, and balance between work and personal life. This was decided by a rankings of different news, journals, and publications. Computer science occupations are anticipated to be in high demand not just in 2023, but also for the foreseeable future. It's not surprising that the number of computer science students at universities is growing and will continue to grow. The enormous increase in student enrolment in many subdisciplines of computers has presented some distinct issues. If computer science is to be incorporated into the K-12 curriculum, it is vital that K-12 educators are competent. But one of the biggest problems with this plan is that there aren't enough trained computer science professors. Numerous new fields and applications, for instance, are being introduced to computer science. In addition, it is difficult for schools to recruit skilled computer science instructors for a variety of reasons including low salary issue. Utilizing the K-12 teachers who are already in the schools, have a love for teaching, and consider teaching as a vocation is therefore the most effective strategy to improve or fix this issue. So, if we want teachers to quickly grasp computer science topics, we need to give them an easy way to learn about computer science. To simplify and expedite the study of computer science, we must acquaint school-treachers with the terminology associated with computer science concepts so they can know which things they need to learn according to their profile. If we want to make it easier for schoolteachers to comprehend computer science concepts, it would be ideal if we could provide them with a tree of words and phrases from which they could determine where the phrases originated and which phrases are connected to them so that they can be effectively learned. To find a good concept word or phrase, we must first identify concepts and then establish their connections or linkages. As computer science is a fast developing field, its nomenclature is also expanding at a frenetic rate. Therefore, adding all concepts and terms to the knowledge graph would be a challenging endeavor. Cre- ating a system that automatically adds all computer science domain terms to the knowledge graph would be a straightforward solution to the issue. We have identified knowledge graph use cases for the schoolteacher training program, which motivates the development of a knowledge graph. We have analyzed the knowledge graph's use case and the knowledge graph's ideal characteristics. We have designed a webbased system for adding, editing, and removing words from a knowledge graph. In addition, a term or phrase can be represented with its children list, parent list, and synonym list for enhanced comprehension. We' ve developed an automated system for extracting words and phrases that can extract computer science idea phrases from any supplied text, therefore enriching the knowledge graph. Therefore, we have designed the knowledge graph for use in teacher education so that school-teachers can educate K-12 students computer science topicses effectively. ItemVisual Analytics of Big Data from Molecular Dynamics Simulation(2022-12) Rajendran, Catherine Jenifer Rajam; Fang, Shiaofen; Liu, Jing-Yuan; Liang, Yao; Xia, YuniProtein malfunction can cause human diseases, which makes the protein a target in the process of drug discovery. In-depth knowledge of how protein functions can widely contribute to the understanding of the mechanism of these diseases. Protein functions are determined by protein structures and their dynamic properties. Protein dynamics refers to the constant physical movement of atoms in a protein, which may result in the transition between different conformational states of the protein. These conformational transitions are critically important for the proteins to function. Understanding protein dynamics can help to understand and interfere with the conformational states and transitions, and thus with the function of the protein. If we can understand the mechanism of conformational transition of protein, we can design molecules to regulate this process and regulate the protein functions for new drug discovery. Protein Dynamics can be simulated by Molecular Dynamics (MD) Simulations. The MD simulation data generated are spatial-temporal and therefore very high dimensional. To analyze the data, distinguishing various atomic interactions within a protein by interpreting their 3D coordinate values plays a significant role. Since the data is humongous, the essential step is to find ways to interpret the data by generating more efficient algorithms to reduce the dimensionality and developing user-friendly visualization tools to find patterns and trends, which are not usually attainable by traditional methods of data process. The typical allosteric long-range nature of the interactions that lead to large conformational transition, pin-pointing the underlying forces and pathways responsible for the global conformational transition at atomic level is very challenging. To address the problems, Various analytical techniques are performed on the simulation data to better understand the mechanism of protein dynamics at atomic level by developing a new program called Probing Long-distance interactions by Tapping into Paired-Distances (PLITIP), which contains a set of new tools based on analysis of paired distances to remove the interference of the translation and rotation of the protein itself and therefore can capture the absolute changes within the protein. Firstly, we developed a tool called Decomposition of Paired Distances (DPD). This tool generates a distance matrix of all paired residues from our simulation data. This paired distance matrix therefore is not subjected to the interference of the translation or rotation of the protein and can capture the absolute changes within the protein. This matrix is then decomposed by DPD using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to reduce dimensionality and to capture the largest structural variation. To showcase how DPD works, two protein systems, HIV-1 protease and 14-3-3 σ, that both have tremendous structural changes and conformational transitions as displayed by their MD simulation trajectories. The largest structural variation and conformational transition were captured by the first principal component in both cases. In addition, structural clustering and ranking of representative frames by their PC1 values revealed the long-distance nature of the conformational transition and locked the key candidate regions that might be responsible for the large conformational transitions. Secondly, to facilitate further analysis of identification of the long-distance path, a tool called Pearson Coefficient Spiral (PCP) that generates and visualizes Pearson Coefficient to measure the linear correlation between any two sets of residue pairs is developed. PCP allows users to fix one residue pair and examine the correlation of its change with other residue pairs. Thirdly, a set of visualization tools that generate paired atomic distances for the shortlisted candidate residue and captured significant interactions among them were developed. The first tool is the Residue Interaction Network Graph for Paired Atomic Distances (NG-PAD), which not only generates paired atomic distances for the shortlisted candidate residues, but also display significant interactions by a Network Graph for convenient visualization. Second, the Chord Diagram for Interaction Mapping (CD-IP) was developed to map the interactions to protein secondary structural elements and to further narrow down important interactions. Third, a Distance Plotting for Direct Comparison (DP-DC), which plots any two paired distances at user’s choice, either at residue or atomic level, to facilitate identification of similar or opposite pattern change of distances along the simulation time. All the above tools of PLITIP enabled us to identify critical residues contributing to the large conformational transitions in both HIV-1 protease and 14-3-3σ proteins. Beside the above major project, a side project of developing tools to study protein pseudo-symmetry is also reported. It has been proposed that symmetry provides protein stability, opportunities for allosteric regulation, and even functionality. This tool helps us to answer the questions of why there is a deviation from perfect symmetry in protein and how to quantify it. ItemDetection and Localization of Root Damages in Underground Sewer Systems using Deep Neural Networks and Computer Vision Techniques(2022-12) Zheng, Muzi; Fang, Shiaofen; Tuceryan, Mihran; Liang, YaoThe maintenance of a healthy sewer infrastructure is a major challenge due to the root damages from nearby plants that grow through pipe cracks or loose joints, which may lead to serious pipe blockages and collapse. Traditional inspections based on video surveillance to identify and localize root damages within such complex sewer networks are inefficient, laborious, and error-prone. Therefore, this study aims to develop a robust and efficient approach to automatically detect root damages and localize their circumferential and longitudinal positions in CCTV inspection videos by applying deep neural networks and computer vision techniques. With twenty inspection videos collected from various resources, keyframes were extracted from each video according to the difference in a LUV color space with certain selections of local maxima. To recognize distance information from video subtitles, OCR models such as Tesseract and CRNN-CTC were implemented and led to a 90% of recognition accuracy. In addition, a pre-trained segmentation model was applied to detect root damages, but it also found many false positive predictions. By applying a well-tuned YoloV3 model on the detection of pipe joints leveraging the Convex Hull Overlap (CHO) feature, we were able to achieve a 20% improvement on the reliability and accuracy of damage identifications. Moreover, an end-to-end deep learning pipeline that involved Triangle Similarity Theorem (TST) was successfully designed to predict the longitudinal position of each identified root damage. The prediction error was less than 1.0 feet. ItemSequential Semantic Segmentation of Streaming Scenes for Autonomous Driving(2022-12) Cheng, Guo; Zheng, Jiang Yu; Tuceryan, Mihran; Mukhopadhyay, Snehasis; Tsechpenakis, Gavriil; Mohler, GeorgeIn traffic scene perception for autonomous vehicles, driving videos are available from in-car sensors such as camera and LiDAR for road detection and collision avoidance. There are some existing challenges in computer vision tasks for video processing, including object detection and tracking, semantic segmentation, etc. First, due to that consecutive video frames have a large data redundancy, traditional spatial-to-temporal approach inherently demands huge computational resource. Second, in many real-time scenarios, targets move continuously in the view as data streamed in. To achieve prompt response with minimum latency, an online model to process the streaming data in shift-mode is necessary. Third, in addition to shape-based recognition in spatial space, motion detection also replies on the inherent temporal continuity in videos. While current works either lack long-term memory for reference or consume a huge amount of computation. The purpose of this work is to achieve strongly temporal-associated sensing results in real-time with minimum memory, which is continually embedded to a pragmatic framework for speed and path planning. It takes a temporal-to-spatial approach to cope with fast moving vehicles in autonomous navigation. It utilizes compact road profiles (RP) and motion profiles (MP) to identify path regions and dynamic objects, which drastically reduces video data to a lower dimension and increases sensing rate. Specifically, we sample one-pixel line at each video frame, the temporal congregation of lines from consecutive frames forms a road profile image; while motion profile consists of the average lines by sampling one-belt pixels at each frame. By applying the dense temporal resolution to compensate the sparse spatial resolution, this method reduces 3D streaming data into 2D image layout. Based on RP and MP under various weather conditions, there have three main tasks being conducted to contribute the knowledge domain in perception and planning for autonomous driving. The first application is semantic segmentation of temporal-to-spatial streaming scenes, including recognition of road and roadside, driving events, objects in static or motion. Since the main vision sensing tasks for autonomous driving are identifying road area to follow and locating traffic to avoid collision, this work tackles this problem by using semantic segmentation upon road and motion profiles. Though one-pixel line may not contain sufficient spatial information of road and objects, the consecutive collection of lines as a temporal-spatial image provides intrinsic spatial layout because of the continuous observation and smooth vehicle motion. Moreover, by capturing the trajectory of pedestrians upon their moving legs in motion profile, we can robustly distinguish pedestrian in motion against smooth background. The experimental results of streaming data collected from various sensors including camera and LiDAR demonstrate that, in the reduced temporal-to-spatial space, an effective recognition of driving scene can be learned through Semantic Segmentation. The second contribution of this work is that it accommodates standard semantic segmentation to sequential semantic segmentation network (SE3), which is implemented as a new benchmark for image and video segmentation. As most state-of-the-art methods are greedy for accuracy by designing complex structures at expense of memory use, which makes trained models heavily depend on GPUs and thus not applicable to real-time inference. Without accuracy loss, this work enables image segmentation at the minimum memory. Specifically, instead of predicting for image patch, SE3 generates output along with line scanning. By pinpointing the memory associated with the input line at each neural layer in the network, it preserves the same receptive field as patch size but saved the computation in the overlapped regions during network shifting. Generally, SE3 applies to most of the current backbone models in image segmentation, and furthers the inference by fusing temporal information without increasing computation complexity for video semantic segmentation. Thus, it achieves 3D association over long-range while under the computation of 2D setting. This will facilitate inference of semantic segmentation on light-weighted devices. The third application is speed and path planning based on the sensing results from naturalistic driving videos. To avoid collision in a close range and navigate a vehicle in middle and far ranges, several RP/MPs are scanned continuously from different depths for vehicle path planning. The semantic segmentation of RP/MP is further extended to multi-depths for path and speed planning according to the sensed headway and lane position. We conduct experiments on profiles of different sensing depths and build up a smoothly planning framework according to their them. We also build an initial dataset of road and motion profiles with semantic labels from long HD driving videos. The dataset is published as additional contribution to the future work in computer vision and autonomous driving. ItemTemporal Event Modeling of Social Harm with High Dimensional and Latent Covariates(2022-08) Liu, Xueying; Mohler, George; Fang, Shiaofen; Wang, Honglang; Hasan, Mohammad A.The counting process is the fundamental of many real-world problems with event data. Poisson process, used as the background intensity of Hawkes process, is the most commonly used point process. The Hawkes process, a self-exciting point process fits to temporal event data, spatial-temporal event data, and event data with covariates. We study the Hawkes process that fits to heterogeneous drug overdose data via a novel semi-parametric approach. The counting process is also related to survival data based on the fact that they both study the occurrences of events over time. We fit a Cox model to temporal event data with a large corpus that is processed into high dimensional covariates. We study the significant features that influence the intensity of events.