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Outcomes After TIPS for Ascites and Variceal Bleeding in a Contemporary Era-An ALTA Group Study
(Wolters Kluwer, 2021) Boike, Justin Richard; Mazumder, Nikhilesh Ray; Kolli, Kanti Pallav; Ge, Jin; German, Margarita; Jest, Nathaniel; Morelli, Giuseppe; Spengler, Erin; Said, Adnan; Lai, Jennifer C.; Desai, Archita P.; Couri, Thomas; Paul, Sonali; Frenette, Catherine; Verna, Elizabeth C.; Rahim, Usman; Goel, Aparna; Gregory, Dyanna; Thornburg, Bartley; VanWagner, Lisa B.; Advancing Liver Therapeutic Approaches (ALTA) Study Group; Medicine, School of Medicine
Introduction: Advances in transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) technology have led to expanded use. We sought to characterize contemporary outcomes of TIPS by common indications. Methods: This was a multicenter, retrospective cohort study using data from the Advancing Liver Therapeutic Approaches study group among adults with cirrhosis who underwent TIPS for ascites/hepatic hydrothorax (ascites/HH) or variceal bleeding (2010-2015). Adjusted competing risk analysis was used to assess post-TIPS mortality or liver transplantation (LT). Results: Among 1,129 TIPS recipients, 58% received TIPS for ascites/HH and 42% for variceal bleeding. In patients who underwent TIPS for ascites/HH, the subdistribution hazard ratio (sHR) for death was similar across all Model for End-Stage Liver Disease Sodium (MELD-Na) categories with an increasing sHR with rising MELD-Na. In patients with TIPS for variceal bleeding, MELD-Na ≥20 was associated with increased hazard for death, whereas MELD-Na ≥22 was associated with LT. In a multivariate analysis, serum creatinine was most significantly associated with death (sHR 1.2 per mg/dL, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04-1.4 and 1.37, 95% CI 1.08-1.73 in ascites/HH and variceal bleeding, respectively). Bilirubin and international normalized ratio were most associated with LT in ascites/HH (sHR 1.23, 95% CI 1.15-1.3; sHR 2.99, 95% CI 1.76-5.1, respectively) compared with only bilirubin in variceal bleeding (sHR 1.06, 95% CI 1.00-1.13). Discussion: MELD-Na has differing relationships with patient outcomes dependent on TIPS indication. These data provide new insights into contemporary predictors of outcomes after TIPS.
Randomized placebo-controlled trial of losartan for pediatric NAFLD
(Wiley, 2022) Vos, Miriam B.; Van Natta, Mark L.; Blondet, Niviann M.; Dasarathy, Srinivasan; Fishbein, Mark; Hertel, Paula; Jain, Ajay K.; Karpen, Saul J.; Lavine, Joel E.; Mohammad, Saeed; Miriel, Laura A.; Molleston, Jean P.; Mouzaki, Marialena; Sanyal, Arun; Sharkey, Emily P.; Schwimmer, Jeffrey B.; Tonascia, James; Wilson, Laura A.; Xanthakos, Stavra A.; NASH Clinical Research Network; Pediatrics, School of Medicine
Background and aims: To date, no pharmacotherapy exists for pediatric NAFLD. Losartan, an angiotensin II receptor blocker, has been proposed as a treatment due to its antifibrotic effects. Approach and results: The Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis Clinical Research Network conducted a multicenter, double-masked, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial in children with histologically confirmed NAFLD at 10 sites (September 2018 to April 2020). Inclusion criteria were age 8-17 years, histologic NAFLD activity score ≥ 3, and serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) ≥ 50 U/l. Children received 100 mg of losartan or placebo orally once daily for 24 weeks. The primary outcome was change in ALT levels from baseline to 24 weeks, and the preset sample size was n = 110. Treatment effects were assessed using linear regression of change in treatment group adjusted for baseline value. Eighty-three participants (81% male, 80% Hispanic) were randomized to losartan (n = 43) or placebo (n = 40). During an enrollment pause, necessitated by the 2019 coronavirus pandemic, an unplanned interim analysis showed low probability (7%) of significant group difference. The Data and Safety Monitoring Board recommended early study termination. Baseline characteristics were similar between groups. The 24-week change in ALT did not differ significantly between losartan versus placebo groups (adjusted mean difference: 1.1 U/l; 95% CI = -30.6, 32.7; p = 0.95), although alkaline phosphatase decreased significantly in the losartan group (adjusted mean difference: -23.4 U/l; 95% CI = -41.5, -5.3; p = 0.01). Systolic blood pressure decreased in the losartan group but increased in placebo (adjusted mean difference: -7.5 mm Hg; 95% CI = -12.2, -2.8; p = 0.002). Compliance by pill counts and numbers and types of adverse events did not differ by group. Conclusions: Losartan did not significantly reduce ALT in children with NAFLD when compared with placebo.
Association Between Increased Seizures During Rewarming After Hypothermia for Neonatal Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy and Abnormal Neurodevelopmental Outcomes at 2-Year Follow-up: A Nested Multisite Cohort Study
(American Medical Association, 2021) Chalak, Lina F.; Pappas, Athina; Tan, Sylvia; Das, Abhik; Sánchez, Pablo J.; Laptook, Abbot R.; Van Meurs, Krisa P.; Shankaran, Seetha; Bell, Edward F.; Davis, Alexis S.; Heyne, Roy J.; Pedroza, Claudia; Poindexter, Brenda B.; Schibler, Kurt; Tyson, Jon E.; Ball, M. Bethany; Bara, Rebecca; Grisby, Cathy; Sokol, Gregory M.; D'Angio, Carl T.; Hamrick, Shannon E.G.; Dysart, Kevin C.; Cotten, C. Michael; Truog, William E.; Watterberg, Kristi L.; Timan, Christopher J.; Garg, Meena; Carlo, Waldemar A.; Higgins, Rosemary D.; Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network; Pediatrics, School of Medicine
Importance: Compared with normothermia, hypothermia has been shown to reduce death or disability in neonatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy but data on seizures during rewarming and associated outcomes are scarce. Objective: To determine whether electrographic seizures are more likely to occur during rewarming compared with the preceding period and whether they are associated with abnormal outcomes in asphyxiated neonates receiving hypothermia therapy. Design, setting, and participants: This prespecified nested cohort study of infants enrolled in the Optimizing Cooling (OC) multicenter Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Neonatal Research Network trial from December 2011 to December 2013 with 2 years' follow-up randomized infants to either 72 hours of cooling (group A) or 120 hours (group B). The main trial included 364 infants. Of these, 194 were screened, 10 declined consent, and 120 met all predefined inclusion criteria. A total of 112 (90%) had complete data for death or disability. Data were analyzed from January 2018 to January 2020. Interventions: Serial amplitude electroencephalography recordings were compared in the 12 hours prior and 12 hours during rewarming for evidence of electrographic seizure activity by 2 central amplitude-integrated electroencephalography readers blinded to treatment arm and rewarming epoch. Odds ratios and 95% CIs were evaluated following adjustment for center, prior seizures, depth of cooling, and encephalopathy severity. Main outcomes and measures: The primary outcome was the occurrence of electrographic seizures during rewarming initiated at 72 or 120 hours compared with the preceding 12-hour epoch. Secondary outcomes included death or moderate or severe disability at age 18 to 22 months. The hypothesis was that seizures during rewarming were associated with higher odds of abnormal neurodevelopmental outcomes. Results: A total of 120 newborns (70 male [58%]) were enrolled (66 in group A and 54 in group B). The mean (SD) gestational age was 39 (1) weeks. There was excellent interrater agreement (κ, 0.99) in detection of seizures. More infants had electrographic seizures during the rewarming epoch compared with the preceding epoch (group A, 27% vs 14%; P = .001; group B, 21% vs 10%; P = .03). Adjusted odd ratios (95% CIs) for seizure frequency during rewarming were 2.7 (1.0-7.5) for group A and 3.2 (0.9-11.6) for group B. The composite death or moderate to severe disability outcome at 2 years was significantly higher in infants with electrographic seizures during rewarming (relative risk [95% CI], 1.7 [1.25-2.37]) after adjusting for baseline clinical encephalopathy and seizures as well as center. Conclusions and relevance: Findings that higher odds of electrographic seizures during rewarming are associated with death or disability at 2 years highlight the necessity of electroencephalography monitoring during rewarming in infants at risk.
The tauopathies: Neuroimaging characteristics and emerging experimental therapies
(Wiley, 2022) Riley, Kalen J.; Graner, Brian D.; Veronesi, Michael C.; Radiology and Imaging Sciences, School of Medicine
The tauopathies are a heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders in which the prevailing underlying disease process is intracellular deposition of abnormal misfolded tau protein. Diseases often categorized as tauopathies include progressive supranuclear palsy, chronic traumatic encephalopathy, corticobasal degeneration, and frontotemporal lobar degeneration. Tauopathies can be classified through clinical assessment, imaging findings, histologic validation, or molecular biomarkers tied to the underlying disease mechanism. Many tauopathies vary in their clinical presentation and overlap substantially in presentation, making clinical diagnosis of a specific primary tauopathy difficult. Anatomic imaging findings are also rarely specific to a single tauopathy, and when present may not manifest until well after the point at which therapy may be most impactful. Molecular biomarkers hold the most promise for patient care and form a platform upon which emerging diagnostic and therapeutic applications could be developed. One of the most exciting developments utilizing these molecular biomarkers for assessment of tau deposition within the brain is tau‐PET imaging utilizing novel ligands that specifically target tau protein. This review will discuss the background, significance, and clinical presentation of each tauopathy with additional attention to the pathologic mechanisms at the protein level. The imaging characteristics will be outlined with select examples of emerging imaging techniques. Finally, current treatment options and emerging therapies will be discussed. This is by no means a comprehensive review of the literature but is instead intended for the practicing radiologist as an overview of a rapidly evolving topic.
A National Survey of Obstetrician/Gynecologists' Knowledge, Attitudes, and Beliefs Regarding Adult Human Papillomavirus Vaccination
(Mary Ann Liebert, 2021) Kasting, Monica L.; Head, Katharine J.; DeMaria, Andrea L.; Neuman, Monica K.; Russell, Allissa L.; Robertson, Sharon E.; Rouse, Caroline E.; Zimet, Gregory D.; Communication Studies, School of Liberal Arts
Background: Many women see an obstetrician/gynecologist (OB/GYN) annually and receive their primary care from an OB/GYN. Understanding OB/GYNs' human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination practices, including knowledge of and barriers to vaccination, is essential to design effective interventions to increase vaccination. This study evaluated OB/GYN knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs regarding vaccinating both younger (18-26 years) and mid-adult (27-45 years) women. Materials and Methods: Data were collected from OB/GYN providers in October 2019 through a nationwide web-based survey. Items included the following: HPV-related vaccination practices, recommendation strength, knowledge (seven items), benefits (four items), and barriers (eight items). Results: The sample (n = 224) was majority were White (69%), men (56%), and practice in suburban clinics (55%). Most (84%) reported they usually or always recommend HPV vaccine to eligible patients, but estimated only about half (51%) of other OB/GYNs did the same. Recommendation strength varied by patient age with 84% strongly recommending it to patients ≤18 years, compared with 79% and 25% strongly recommending to younger and mid-adult patients, respectively (p < 0.01). Participants reported lower benefits (p = 0.007) and higher barriers (p < 0.001) for 27- to 45-year-old patients compared with younger patients. Cost was the most frequently reported barrier, regardless of patient age. Overall knowledge was high (m = 5.2/7) but 33% of participants did not know the vaccine was safe while breastfeeding. Conclusions: Although providers reported strongly and consistently recommending the HPV vaccination to their adult patients, there were gaps in knowledge and attitudinal barriers that need to be addressed. Provider performance feedback may be important in improving HPV vaccination awareness among providers.