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Methionine Restriction Impairs Degradation of a Protein that Aberrantly Engages the Endoplasmic Reticulum Translocon
(Caltech LIbrary, 2023-11-09) Runnebohm, Avery M.; Indovina, Christopher J.; Turk, Samantha M.; Bailey, Connor G.; Orchard, Cade J.; Wade, Lauren; Overton, Danielle L.; Snow, Brian J.; Rubenstein, Eric M.; Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Medicine
Proteins that persistently engage endoplasmic reticulum (ER) translocons are degraded by multiple translocon quality control (TQC) mechanisms. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae , the model translocon-associated protein Deg1 -Sec62 is subject to ER-associated degradation (ERAD) by the Hrd1 ubiquitin ligase and, to a lesser extent, proteolysis mediated by the Ste24 protease. In a recent screen, we identified nine methionine-biosynthetic genes as candidate TQC regulators. Here, we found methionine restriction impairs Hrd1-independent Deg1 -Sec62 degradation. Beyond revealing methionine as a novel regulator of TQC, our results urge caution when working with laboratory yeast strains with auxotrophic mutations, often presumed not to influence cellular processes under investigation.
Effect of Vitamin C Supplementation for Pregnant Smokers on Offspring Airway Function and Wheeze at Age 5 Years: Follow-up of a Randomized Clinical Trial
(American Medical Association, 2023) McEvoy, Cindy T.; Shorey-Kendrick, Lyndsey E.; Milner, Kristin; Harris, Julia; Vuylsteke, Brittany; Cunningham, Michelle; Tiller, Christina; Stewart, Jaclene; Schilling, Diane; Brownsberger, Julie; Titus, Hope; MacDonald, Kelvin D.; Gonzales, David; Vu, Annette; Park, Byung S.; Spindel, Eliot R.; Morris, Cynthia D.; Tepper, Robert S.; Pediatrics, School of Medicine
Importance: Vitamin C supplementation (500 mg/d) for pregnant smokers has been reported to increase offspring airway function as measured by forced expiratory flow (FEF) through age 12 months; however, its effects on airway function at age 5 years remain to be assessed. Objective: To assess whether vitamin C supplementation in pregnant smokers is associated with increased and/or improved airway function in their offspring at age 5 years and whether vitamin C decreases the occurrence of wheeze. Design, setting, and participants: This study followed up the Vitamin C to Decrease the Effects of Smoking in Pregnancy on Infant Lung Function (VCSIP) double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial conducted at 3 centers in the US (in Oregon, Washington, and Indiana) between 2012 and 2016. Investigators and participants remain unaware of the treatment assignments. Forced expiratory flow measurements at age 5 years were completed from 2018 to 2021. Interventions: Pregnant smokers were randomized to vitamin C (500 mg/d) or placebo treatment. Main outcomes and measures: The primary outcome was the prespecified measurement of FEF between 25% and 75% expired volume (FEF25-75) by spirometry at age 5 years. Secondary outcomes included FEF measurements at 50% and 75% of expiration (FEF50 and FEF75), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), and occurrence of wheeze. Results: Of the 251 pregnant smokers included in this study, 125 (49.8%) were randomized to vitamin C and 126 (50.2%) were randomized to placebo. Of 213 children from the VCSIP trial who were reconsented into this follow-up study, 192 (90.1%) had successful FEF measurements at age 5 years; 212 (99.5%) were included in the analysis of wheeze. Analysis of covariance demonstrated that offspring of pregnant smokers allocated to vitamin C compared with placebo had 17.2% significantly higher mean (SE) measurements of FEF25-75 at age 5 years (1.45 [0.04] vs 1.24 [0.04] L/s; adjusted mean difference, 0.21 [95% CI, 0.13-0.30]; P < .001). Mean (SE) measurements were also significantly increased by 14.1% for FEF50 (1.59 [0.04] vs 1.39 [0.04] L/s; adjusted mean difference, 0.20 [95% CI, 0.11-0.30]; P < .001), 25.9% for FEF75 (0.79 [0.02] vs 0.63 [0.02] L/s; 0.16 [95% CI, 0.11-0.22]; P < .001), and 4.4% for FEV1 (1.13 [0.02] vs 1.09 [0.02] L; 0.05 [95% CI, 0.01-0.09]; P = .02). In addition, offspring of pregnant smokers randomized to vitamin C had significantly decreased wheeze (28.3% vs 47.2%; estimated odds ratio, 0.41 [95% CI, 0.23-0.74]; P = .003). Conclusions and relevance: In this follow-up study of offspring of pregnant smokers randomized to vitamin C vs placebo, vitamin C supplementation during pregnancy resulted in significantly increased airway function of offspring at age 5 years and significantly decreased the occurrence of wheeze. These findings suggest that vitamin C supplementation for pregnant smokers may decrease the effects of smoking in pregnancy on childhood airway function and respiratory health.
Beshert: Destined to Happen
(2024) Feigenbaum, Harvey
An autobiography filled with unexpected events which led to the development of echocardiography, medicine’s leading way to visualize the heart. Based on a 2012 interview with the author, Harvey Feigenbaum, MD; revised by the author in 2024.
Dbh+ catecholaminergic cardiomyocytes contribute to the structure and function of the cardiac conduction system in murine heart
(Springer Nature, 2023-11-28) Sun, Tianyi; Grassam-Rowe, Alexander; Pu, Zhaoli; Li, Yangpeng; Ren, Huiying; An, Yanru; Guo, Xinyu; Hu, Wei; Liu, Ying; Zheng, Yuqing; Liu, Zhu; Kou, Kun; Ou, Xianhong; Chen, Tangting; Fan, Xuehui; Liu, Yangyang; Tu, Shu; He, Yu; Ren, Yue; Chen, Ao; Shang, Zhouchun; Xia, Zhidao; Miquerol, Lucile; Smart, Nicola; Zhang, Henggui; Tan, Xiaoqiu; Shou, Weinian; Lei, Ming; Pediatrics, School of Medicine
The heterogeneity of functional cardiomyocytes arises during heart development, which is essential to the complex and highly coordinated cardiac physiological function. Yet the biological and physiological identities and the origin of the specialized cardiomyocyte populations have not been fully comprehended. Here we report a previously unrecognised population of cardiomyocytes expressing Dbhgene encoding dopamine beta-hydroxylase in murine heart. We determined how these myocytes are distributed across the heart by utilising advanced single-cell and spatial transcriptomic analyses, genetic fate mapping and molecular imaging with computational reconstruction. We demonstrated that they form the key functional components of the cardiac conduction system by using optogenetic electrophysiology and conditional cardiomyocyte Dbh gene deletion models. We revealed their close relationship with sympathetic innervation during cardiac conduction system formation. Our study thus provides new insights into the development and heterogeneity of the mammalian cardiac conduction system by revealing a new cardiomyocyte population with potential catecholaminergic endocrine function.
The "Circle of Civics"
(2024-04-12) Osborn, Elizabeth R.
Slides from the session "Civics Curriculum: Development, Implementation, and State Standards Alignment." This presentation was given by Dr. Elizabeth Osborn from Indiana University's Center on Representative Government and Co-Director of iEngage, a youth civics summer camp.