IUPUI Research Day 2011

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    Digesting omni-video along routes for navigation
    (Office of the Vice Chancellor for Research, 2011-04-08) Cai, Hongyuan; Zheng, Jiang Yu
    Omni-directional video records complete visual information along a route. Though replaying an omni-video presents reality, it requires significant amount of memory and communication bandwidth. This work extracts distinct views from an omni-video to form a visual digest named route sheet for navigation. We sort scenes at the motion and visibility level and investigate the similarity/redundancy of scenes in the context of a route. We use source data from 3D elevation map or omni-videos for the view selection. By condensing the flow in the video, our algorithm can generate distinct omni-view sequences with visual information as rich as the omni-video for further scene indexing and navigation with GIS data.
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    Synchronous neural oscillations in Parkinson’s disease: Variability and its potential network mechanisms
    (Office of the Vice Chancellor for Research, 2011-04-08) Rubchinsky, L.L.; Park, C.; Worth, R.M.
    Recent studies indicate that patterns of oscillatory synchronous activity in Basal Ganglia (BG) may be relevant to BG physiology and disorders, including Parkinson’s disease (PD). Oscillations in BG, in particular, in relation to motor control, are observed in different species, different conditions and different dopaminergic states (e.g., PD vs. normal). The rich membrane properties of BG neurons easily support oscillatory behavior. Correlations of oscillatory activity between different BG locations depend on the brain state and are dynamically organized. A general feature of BG oscillations is strong power and correlations of the β-band activity when no movement is performed and replacement of β with γ-band activity during movement. Dopamine-depleted state, such as PD, is marked by increase of oscillatory and synchronous activity, in particular in the β-band. This study explores the dynamical nature of these oscillations on short time-scales.
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    Comparative Proteomics and Biological Effects of Functionalized Carbon Nanotubes in Intestinal Cell Co-culture
    (Office of the Vice Chancellor for Research, 2011-04-08) Lai, Xianyin; Fang, Meixian; Fears, Sharry; Mitra, Somenath; Ringham, Heather; Witzmann, Frank A.
    “Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) possess unique electrical, mechanical, and thermal properties, with potential applications in the electronics, catalysts, polymer composites, aerospace, and other industries. CNTs are also being developed for a broad range of applications in biomedicine, including oral drug delivery. Functionalized, water dispersible CNTs (fCNTS) can be expected to enter the digestive tract and exert biological effects on its barrier epithelial cells. To characterize these effects, we developed an in vitro model of the large intestinal tract using a coculture of Caco-2 (75%) and HT29-MTX (25%, mucus secreting) cells, and exposed these cells to functionalized single-walled (SWNT) and multi-walled (MWNT) carbon nanotubes at realistic concentrations (500 pg/mL and 10 µg/mL; 48 h). Protein expression was analyzed using our recently developed label-free quantitative mass spectrometry (LFQMS) platform, IdentiQuantXL™, while typical toxicological endpoint assays were used to characterize various cellular responses. LFQMS identified 5,007 unique protein database entries, from which 4,200 proteins were considered qualified for quantitation. These proteins represented 1,978 protein groups (containing isoforms, splice-variants, etc). Differences in expression were calculated by ANOVA (P<0.001) and post hoc Holm Sidak comparisons (P<0.05). fCNT significantly altered protein expression in a moderate number of proteins, the extent and type of which were fCNT specific. Only 13 proteins were universally altered by all exposures (except 500 pg/mL COOHSWNT which had no effect), and these represent a broad range of cellular functions. Bioinformatic analysis using the Gene Ontology Database and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis revealed statistically significant protein associations with a broad range of functional networks and signaling/metabolic pathways. Again, little overlap between fCNT was observed. None of the exposures was associated with overt toxicity or proinflammatory response. The results suggest that significant biological effects result from fCNT exposure, responses that are specific to CNT-type and dose, but occurring in the absence of toxicity or irritation. Supported by NIEHS RC2ES018810.”
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    Modeling the Origin of Parkinsonian Tremor
    (Office of the Vice Chancellor for Research, 2011-04-08) Dovzhenok, Andrei; Rubchinsky, Leonid
    Even though much is known about the biophysics, anatomy and physiology of basal ganglia networks, the cellular and network basis of parkinsonian tremor remains an open question. Multiple experimental data suggest that the physiological origin of parkinsonian tremor is different from the physiological origin of other parkinsonian motor symptoms. However, the exact origin of the tremor genesis in Parkinson’s disease remains unknown. A large body of experimental evidence supports the hypothesis, that the tremor arises due to pathological interaction of potentially oscillatory cells within the loop formed by basal ganglia and thalamocortical circuits. We suggest a model of this circuitry, which helps to clarify this potential mechanism of tremor genesis.
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    North United Methodist Church Sociology and Photography Project
    (Office of the Vice Chancellor for Research, 2011-04-08) Pike, Lynn
    To use photography to better understand the following concerning the "guests" at a churchbased soup kitchen in Indianapolis. One year was spent exploring how to use researcherproduced photos of soup kitchen "guests":*to meet their social/emotional/physical needs*to give back or implement feelings of trust and reciprocity*to improve relations between IUPUI, the church, and the surrounding urban community.
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    Physical Measurements of Biological Membranes
    (Office of the Vice Chancellor for Research, 2011-04-08) Petrache, Horia
    In our Biomembrane Physics laboratory in the Physics Department at IUPUI, we use a number of experimental methods to determine the physical properties of biological membranes. These methods include X-ray scattering, NMR spectroscopy, and measurements of ion channel activities. Most projects are interdisciplinary and include students in physics, chemistry, biology, and engineering. We will present highlights from these projects and show how students with different backgrounds can work together to solve problems that require a broad range of skills, from molecular biology to physical measurements and theoretical analysis.
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    Institute for American Thought
    (Office of the Vice Chancellor for Research, 2011-04-08) Pfeifer, David
    This poster will have images of recent volumes published by the critical editions being edited by the Institute for American Thought. Information will tell how long the critical editions have been in existence, how much funding has been received. The new fifth critical edition will be mentioned. We will provide information on our five scholarly critical editions. Three of them publish the works of the classical American philosophers Charles S. Peirce (1839–1914), Josiah Royce (1855– 1916), and George Santayana (1863–1952), and two others the works of the famous abolitionist Frederick Douglass (1818–1895), and the short stories of Ray Bradbury (1920–).
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    Latin American Workers and the Struggle for Social Justice
    (Office of the Vice Chancellor for Research, 2011-04-08) Mello, William J.; Quiero -Tajalli, Irene
    Working class movements for social justice, such as Argentina’s Piqueteiro movement and Brazil’s Landless Peasant Movement (MST) have become permanent aspects of Latin American society. One of the most significant aspects of the struggle against neo-liberal globalization in Latin America was the upsurge of social movements, contesting market driven sociopolitical transformations imposed during the early 1990s. These movements joined labor, community and grassroots political organizations that were the mainstay behind the recent victories of progressive governments, popularly known as Latin Americas “pink revolution.” In this sense the process of political and social transformation has taken activists to adopt a model of contestation (mobilization) and political mediation (institutional negotiations) which moves unevenly through the structures of power and affects long term movement objectives. The constraints of market interests stand in permanent conflict with the movements long term sociopolitical objectives placing a new set of questions for anti-globalization social movements which will not easily be resolved and will shape their future objectives and strategies in years to come. The poster presentation, based on findings from quantitative research, will encapsulate the main socio-political factors leading to the gradual formation of these two movements, their struggles against the mechanisms of national and international oppression; organizing strategies, empowering projects of mutual support, and the role of the university. The presentation will incorporate researchers’ preliminary questions leading to their research projects, including ”Why do the oppressed have to resort to civil disobedience to get their rights?” the theoretical underpinnings of the projects, the research design, and findings. This presentation is timely given the current struggle of the working class in this country, particularly in Wisconsin and Indiana.
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    Department of Biology: Diverse and Forward-Looking
    (Office of the Vice Chancellor for Research, 2011-04-08) Redelman, Carly; Hudson, Scott
    The Purdue School of Science Biology Department at IUPUI is a diverse department representing many different biological disciplines, including regenerative, developmental and cellular biology, biochemistry, immunology, microbiology, plant biology, and ecology. Through a collaborative effort, the biology graduate students have organized a poster representation of their thesis work to highlight different cutting edge research efforts in our department. Medically relevant research is emphasized including prominent diseases and disorders such as cystic fibrosis, diabetic hypertension, polycystic kidney disease, congestive heart failure, osteoporosis, cancers, fetal alcohol syndrome, Down syndrome, lung cancer, Meckel-Gruber syndrome and neural disorders. Furthermore, IUPUI Department of Biology partners with the Center of Regenerative Biology and Medicine through which several biology principle investigators have co-appointments. The main objective of this center is to translate basic research findings into regenerative medicine therapies with a focus on the central nervous system, musculoskeletal system, liver, pancreas and appendages. The Urban Center for Stem Education is another initiative that the Department of Biology supports. This is a joint effort with the School of Education and School of Engineering and Technology to foster collaboration to expand knowledge in the STEM areas in an effort to promote teaching and learning between the university and K-12 teachers. This center plays a role in preparing the next generation of K12 math and science teachers. In an effort to assist in undergraduate education, biology graduate students regularly assist in the mentoring of undergraduate researchers. Finally, biology graduate students participate in the NSF funded GK-12 fellowship program in which select graduate students spend a year in a K-12 classroom teaching science side by side with a K-12 teacher and introducing graduate level research to middle school and high school students through specialized projects designed by the graduate student fellow. As demonstrated, the IUPUI Department of Biology research endeavors are progressive and extensive. In conjunction through collaborative efforts with the medical school and teaching oriented programs, the Department of Biology is forward-looking and community oriented.
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    The availability, price and quality of food items in diverse food retail outlets
    (Office of the Vice Chancellor for Research, 2011-04-08) Mushi-Brunt, Christina; Virgil, Kisha; Agbonhese, Joy
    Despite large-scale, nationwide health promotion efforts, researchers continue to report socioeconomic and racial disparities in the prevalence of chronic disease, including diabetes, cardiovascular disease, obesity and certain cancers. One possible explanation for these disparities may be found in examining the retail food environment in which healthy food choices are made by individuals. The local food environment can strongly influence the dietary choices made by individuals. Low-income residents have reported factors such as limited access to health food options and the high cost and low quality of the available food items within their communities as important barriers to consuming a healthy diet. Recent studies have shown direct correlations between a healthy diet and access to retail food outlets such as supermarkets and grocery stores. However, there are few studies that have directly assessed the availability, price and quality of foods sold in diverse types of food retail outlets and identified differences between and among the various types of outlets. Fewer still are studies that have identified these food item characteristics based on recommendations specific to cancer prevention. This study identifies the availability, price and quality of foods recommended by the American Cancer Society for a healthy diet in the food retail outlets of Marion County, Indiana and determines if differences exist in these characteristics between and within store types and community deprivation. In 2010 144 food retail outlets (supermarkets, grocery stores, convenience stores, gas stations, and ethnic grocers) were assessed through direct observation by trained researchers using a validated food retail outlet audit tool. Food items included fresh, frozen and canned produce; dry goods; fresh meats; dairy; and refrigerated foods. The price of specific food items with each food category was assessed. Quality was assessed for fresh produce category only. The environmental characteristics of the stores, including cleanliness, safety features, and the presence of health promotion message (e.g. 5-a-Day for Better Health logo) was also assessed. Each food retail outlet was characterized as being in a “high deprivation” or “low deprivation” community. Type of community was determined from a composite of socioeconomic characteristics using 2000 census block group data. This presentation provides a summary of key research findings and highlights suggested translation of the research findings into health promotion practice and policy. Funding support for this study was provided by the Indiana University American Cancer Society Institutional Research Grant. Census data work completed with the assistance of Shawn Hoch, IU School of Medicine.