- Gerardo Maupome
ItemSocial support associated with restorative treatment, professionally applied fluoride and flossing: A cross-sectional analysis including recent immigrants from Central America and Mexico in the Midwest USA(Wiley, 2023) Brooks, Caroline V.; Maupomé, Gerardo; Epidemiology, School of Public HealthObjectives This study examined how Mexican and Central American immigrants' social support was associated with three selected dental outcomes among recent immigrants, prior to the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic. Methods Using baseline wave data from the 2017–2022 VidaSana study about the health and social networks of Mexican and Central American immigrants living in Indiana, this study utilized logistic and ordinal logistic regression to predict lifetime fluoride use, lifetime dental restoration and flossing frequency, across levels of social support and differences between Mexican and Central American immigrants. Results Data from 547 respondents were included in the present analysis (68% women; mean age 34.4 years [SD 11.2]; Central American 42%; Mexican 58%). Results show a high level of social support was associated with increased probability of fluoride use, dental restoration and higher flossing frequency for Mexican immigrants. However, social support for Central American immigrants was associated with a decreased likelihood of fluoride use, more infrequent flossing, and had no significant association with dental restorations experience. What would be a negative association between Central American immigrants and dental restoration was accounted for by education level and never having been to a dentist. Conclusions While higher social support was linked to beneficial outcomes for oral health in Mexican immigrants, the opposite was found in Central Americans. These findings highlighted the complexities of social relationships among new immigrants, and potential heterogeneity within the Hispanic population, particularly regarding social and behavioural measures as they pertain to oral health. Further research is needed to identify the underlying mechanisms producing both differences in social support and oral health outcomes. ItemFinancial Impact of COVID-19 on Dental Care for Pediatric Patients: a Dental Claims Review(American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry, 2023-02) Rector, Julia M.; Scully, Allison C.; Yepes, Juan F.; Jones, James E.; Eckert, George; Downey, Timothy; Maupome, Gerardo; Pediatric Dentistry, School of DentistryPurpose: The purpose of this study was to quantify the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on private dental insurance claims for pediatric dental care. Methods: Commercial dental insurance claims for patients in the United States ages 18 and younger were obtained and analyzed. The claims dates ranged from January 1, 2019, to August 31, 2020. Total claims paid, average paid amount per visit, and the number of visits were compared between provider specialties and patient age groups from 2019 to 2020. Results: Total paid claims and total number of visits per week were significantly lower in 2020 compared to 2019 from mid-March to mid-May (P<0.001). There were generally no differences from mid-May through August (P>0.15), except for significantly lower total paid claims and visits per week for "other" specialists in 2020 (P<0.005). The average paid amount per visit was significantly higher during the COVID shutdown period for 0-5 year-olds (P<0.001) but significantly lower for all other ages. Conclusions: Dental care was greatly reduced during the COVID shutdown period and was slower to recover for "other" specialties. Younger patients ages zero to five years had more expensive dental visits during the shutdown period. ItemExperience, Prevalence, Need for Treatment and Cost of Care for Caries: A Multicenter Study in a Developing Country(FDI World Dental Press Ltd., 2022-05-27) Lucas-Rincón, Salvador E.; Lara-Carrillo, Edith; Robles-Bermeo, Norma Leticia; Rueda-Ibarra, Vicente; Alonso-Sánchez, Carmen C.; Vázquez-Rodríguez, Sandra B.; Ávila-Burgos, Leticia; Medina-Solis, Carlo E.; Maupomé, GerardoObjective: To assess the experience, prevalence, need for treatment and economic impact of caries among students 6-12 years old in four cities in Mexico. Basic research design: Cross-sectional clinical study. Setting: Elementary public schools. Participants: 500 schoolchildren aged 6 to 12 years. Method: Oral clinical examinations using WHO criteria for caries in the primary (dmft) and permanent (DMFT) dentitions. Main outcome measures: Indicators of caries in the primary and permanent dentitions: experience, prevalence, severity and the Significant Caries Index. In addition, we calculated the treatment needs, dental care rate and cost of care. Results: dmft in the primary dentition was 2.59±2.83, and DMFT was 0.82±1.44 in the permanent dentition. Caries prevalence reached 67.7% in the primary and 34.1% in permanent dentition. The treatment needs index was 85.9% and 91.3% in the primary and permanent dentitions, respectively; the dental care index was 13.9% and 8.5%, respectively. The cost of care for caries in the primary dentition was estimated at $22.087 millions of international dollars (PPP US$) when amalgam was the restorative material used, and PPP US$19.107 millions for glass ionomer. For the permanent dentition, the cost was PPP US$7.431 millions when amalgam was used and PPP US$7.985 millions when resin/composite was used as restorative material. Conclusions: The prevalence and experience of caries in the primary dentition were 50% greater than those of other studies carried out in Mexico. In the permanent dentition they were less. There is considerable need for the treatment of caries and minimal experience with restorative care. The cost of care for caries may be assumed to be high for a health system such as Mexico's. ItemTalking about Teeth: Egocentric Networks and Oral Health Outcomes in a Mexican American Immigrant Community(Emerald Publishing Limited, 2019) Pullen, Erin; Perry, Brea L.; Maupome, GerardoLatinos in the United States have poor outcomes for periodontal and dental health. However, a detailed description of the mechanisms driving these patterns has only recently started to be addressed in the literature. In the current study, we explore relationships between individual-level characteristics of Mexican immigrants, properties of their networks, and experiences of dental problems. Specifically, using data from an urban community of Mexican immigrants to the American Midwest (n = 332), this study examines how characteristics of oral health matters (OHM) discussion networks and individual-level sociodemographic characteristics are associated with four adverse oral health outcomes. The results provide strong support for relationships between immigrants' network characteristics and dental problems. We find that people with more dental problems talk about these issues more frequently with network ties. Conversely, stronger relationships with OHM discussion networks, as measured by mean closeness, are predictive of fewer dental problems. In addition, we identify a link between perceptions of alters' knowledge about teeth, mouth, and gums and egos reporting better oral health outcomes. The observed patterns are suggestive of mechanisms of social influence that are well replicated in the social, medical, and public health literatures, but that have seldom been empirically tested in the domain of oral health. Though preliminary, our findings suggest a potential explanatory role for social networks in some of the most important questions and problems in oral health disparities research. In all, our findings suggest that social network members are active participants in the management and response to oral health problems in this immigrant group and should be considered an important factor in the development and course of diseases. ItemThe Informal Safety Net: Social Network Activation among Hispanic Immigrants during COVID-19(Sage, 2023) Smith, Nicholas C.; Brooks, Caroline V.; Ekl, Emily A.; García, Melissa J.; Ambriz, Denise; Maupomé, Gerardo; Perry, Brea L.During times of crisis, individuals may activate members of their social networks to fulfill critical support functions. However, factors that may facilitate or inhibit successful network activation are not fully understood, particularly for structurally marginalized populations. This study examines predictors of network activation among recent and established Hispanic immigrants during the COVID-19 pandemic. Specifically, using unique, longitudinal data from the VidaSana study and its supplemental survey, the COVID-19 Rapid Response study (N = 400), we ask: How are COVID-related stressors associated with goal-oriented network activation (e.g., health-focused activation) among Hispanic immigrants? How might structural and compositional characteristics of social networks facilitate or inhibit successful network activation during COVID-19? Results align with theories of network activation (i.e., functional specificity) that imply that individuals engage in selective and deliberate activation of networks. That is, we observe a congruency between COVID-related stressors and social network characteristics, and distinct types of network activation. Moreover, we find that respondents experiencing pandemic-induced economic difficulties engage in activation for financial assistance only if they are embedded in a higher-educated network. We discuss the implications of these findings and provide recommendations for future research. ItemStress and Alcohol Intake among Hispanic Adult Immigrants in the U.S. Midwest(MDPI, 2022-12-04) Rodriguez, Jacqueline; Golzarri-Arroyo, Lilian; Rodriguez, Cindy; Maupomé, GerardoAlcohol intake and Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) among recent and very recent Hispanic immigrants are not well characterized, in particular in the context of perceived stress among such groups. The objective of the present study was to shed light on alcohol intake and AUD overall, as well as potential modifications derived from varying levels of stress and socioeconomic status (SES). The study population was immigrants with six or fewer months of having arrived in the American Midwest, and members of their peer networks who had been in the U.S. for 2+ years. We found that AUD and alcohol intake spanned from very high to a considerable proportion who abstained; perceived stress did not have an obvious impact on AUD or alcohol intake. Moreover, neither New vs. Established immigrant statuses, or SES levels, were associated with AUD or alcohol intake. Future research should examine in a more finely-grained approach the components of SES to verify if the complex circumstances of recent immigrants are in fact amenable to SES classification using standard quantification approaches—even using the functional descriptions of the SES surrogates we used. ItemCancer‐related knowledge, beliefs, and behaviors among Hispanic/Latino residents of Indiana(Wiley, 2023) Espinoza-Gutarra, Manuel R.; Rawl, Susan M.; Maupome, Gerardo; O'Leary, Heather A.; Valenzuela, Robin E.; Malloy, Caeli; Golzarri-Arroyo, Lilian; Parker, Erik; Haunert, Laura; Haggstrom, David A.Background: Cancer is the leading cause of death for Hispanics in the USA. Screening and prevention reduce cancer morbidity and mortality. Methods: This study administered a cross‐sectional web‐based survey to self‐identified Hispanic residents in the state of Indiana to assess their cancer‐related knowledge, beliefs, and behaviors, as well as to identify what factors might be associated with cancer screening and prevention. Chi‐square and Fisher's exact test were used to compare associations and logistic regression used to develop both univariate and multivariate regression models. Results: A total of 1520 surveys were completed, median age of respondents was 53, 52% identified as men, 50.9% completed the survey in Spanish, and 60.4% identified the USA as their country of birth. Most were not able to accurately identify ages to begin screening for breast, colorectal, or lung cancer, and there were significant differences in cancer knowledge by education level. US‐born individuals with higher income and education more often believed they were likely to develop cancer and worry about getting cancer. Sixty eight percent of respondents were up‐to‐date with colorectal, 44% with breast, and 61% with cervical cancer screening. Multivariate models showed that higher education, lack of fatalism, older age, lower household income, and unmarried status were associated with cervical cancer screening adherence. Conclusions: Among a Hispanic population in the state of Indiana, factors associated with cervical cancer screening adherence were similar to the general population, with the exceptions of income and marital status. Younger Hispanic individuals were more likely to be adherent with breast and colorectal cancer screening, and given the higher incidence of cancer among older individuals, these results should guide future research and targeted outreach. ItemPrison Health is Community Health: The Indiana Peer Education Program(Research Square, 2022-07-06) Janota, Andrea D.; Hibbard, Patrick F.; Meadows, Meghan E.; Cocco, John P.; Carr, Abigail L.; Nichols, Deborah; Chapman, Erika; Maupomé, Gerardo; Duwve, JoanBackground: Concerning health inequities have been found in incarcerated populations, which likely impact broader community health. This paper evaluates the Indiana Peer Education Program (INPEP ECHO), an initiative that aims to improve health knowledge using the Project ECHO (Extension for Community Healthcare Outcomes) model to train people incarcerated in Indiana prisons (USA) as peer health educators inside prisons. Peer educators undergo a 40-hour training and then facilitate 10-hour long health education workshops inside their facilities over several days. Methods: We assessed the changes observed in pre- and post-session survey responses to estimate the impact this program had on peer educators and those they teach via multivariate regression analysis. We also examined peer educator qualitative data for emergent themes and confirmation of survey findings. Results: Findings from the 10-hour workshops showed improved knowledge scores and post-release behavior intentions. Peer educator surveys indicated increases in knowledge, health attitudes, and self-efficacy scores. Qualitative analysis affirms the latter finding and points toward peer educators acquiring expertise in the content they teach and how to teach it and that positive results likely expand beyond participants to others in prison, their families, and the communities to which they return. Further, peer educators shared they felt new purpose and hope tied to their participation in INPEP ECHO. Although these survey results show positive change in the short term, such improvements have been shown in other research to lead to improved middle- and long-term outcomes. Conclusions: Though preliminary, results indicate this type of public health intervention, training incarcerated individuals as peer educators on health topics, appears to increase important health knowledge and behavior intentions, which will likely lead to improvements in personal and public health outcomes. Results also point toward specific improvements associated with peers providing the education, and not external sources. The skills participants attain, as well, seem to increase their sense of purpose and self-efficacy, which have been shown to precede desistance from crime. While more work is necessary, the high costs associated with treating diseases like hepatitis C point toward an urgent need for programs like INPEP. ItemAnalyzing Perceptions of Community-Engaged Health Research Partnerships Comprising Hispanic Groups and Academic Allies in Indiana(Indiana University, 2022-11-29) Gil, Cindy; Armenta, Karla; Espada, Camila; Ontiveros-Salinas, Leonel; Maupome, GerardoObjectives: To analyze perceptions about multiple community-engaged oral health research partnerships with various local Hispanic-serving institutions and community-based organizations occurring in Indiana from 2010 through 2020, via interviews with actors involved in those partnerships. Methods: We designed key informant interview questions based on a literature review to inform the approach at synthesizing perspectives from community partners and academic allies. Statements were categorized using thematic analysis and grounded theory. Lessons Learned: Forty percent of respondents stated that community-engaged research projects connect communities with educational information about dental care and low-cost resources. In terms of capacity building, about half of respondents felt these projects had a positive impact. Conclusions: Community partners defined positive impact as increasing access to dental care educational resources, helping to enhance communication networks through social media with community partners, and contributing to local Hispanic health education through TV, internet, and radio partnerships. The partnerships uniting Hispanic groups and academic allies appear to have helped set a foundation of trust to support current and future efforts in Indiana. ItemAssociation of added sugar intake and caries-related experiences among individuals of Mexican origin(Wiley, 2018) Vega-López, S.; Lindberg, N.M.; Eckert, G.J.; Nicholson, E.L.; Maupomé, GerardoObjective: Determine the association between key dental outcomes and added sugar intake using a survey instrument to assess added sugars, which was specifically tailored to immigrant and US-born adults of Mexican origin. Methods: Hispanic adults of Mexican origin (n = 326; 36.2 ± 12.1 years) completed a self-administered survey to gather acculturation, self-reported dental experiences and self-care practices (eg brushing, flossing, pain, bleeding gums), and socio-demographic information. The survey included a culturally tailored 22-item Added Sugar Intake Estimate (ASIE) that assessed added sugar intake from processed foods and sugar-sweetened beverages in a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire format. Linear regression, 2-sample t test, and ANOVA were used to evaluate associations of demographic and dental outcomes with daily added sugar intake. Results: Of the mean total daily added sugar intake (99.6 ± 94.6 g), 36.5 ± 44.4 g was derived from sugar-containing foods and snacks, and 63.1 ± 68.2 g from beverages. Participants who reported greater added sugar intake were more likely to have reported the presence of a toothache in the preceding 12 months, having been prescribed antibiotics for dental reasons, being less likely to floss daily, have reported eating or drinking within 1 hour before bed and have lower psychological acculturation (P < .05 for all). Results were comparable when assessing intake from sugar-containing foods/snacks and sugar-sweetened beverages. Conclusions: This study confirmed the association between added sugar intake and self-reported dental outcomes among adults of Mexican origin and points to an urgent need to improve dietary behaviours in this population.