Herron School of Art and Design Works

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Articles, proceedings, posters and other works by Herron School of Art and Design faculty members.

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    Adaptive Resumes in Disrupted Futures
    (Cumulus Association, 2022) Ganci, Aaron; Herron School of Art
    As the impacts of the climate crisis continue to unfold, more and more workers will become displaced (International Labour Organization). While the bulk of disruption will be felt by the working poor in the third world, every part of the economy will eventually be impacted. Within the United States, millions of people will face dramatic changes to the environment because of rising temperatures, widespread fires, flooding, and more. In response, there will be an increased need for workers at all levels to migrate or switch employment sectors. As a design researcher, I am specifically interested in how design artifacts play a role in worker cross-sector mobility. There is one crucial artifact that plays a facilitating role within this dynamic: the resume. The resume is a seemingly innocuous player in the job-seeking process. However, when viewed as a narrative artifact, it becomes obvious that the resume has untapped potential. As workers seek to enter new and unfamiliar domains, they will need better tools to help them construct relatable narratives about their unique blend of experiences and skills. Over the last two years, my team has been examining the space of worker adaptability through the development of a solution called Real CV. This project seeks to help workers articulate their strengths and translate domain-specific abilities and experiences into narratives that can be understood by a wider audience. Put another way, I seek to update the format of the resume to help workers become more adaptable to their evolving surroundings. This paper will identify weaknesses with the CV through a critical intersectional lens (Booysen, 2018) and will detail the use of a constructive design methodology (Bardzell et al., 2015; Dorst, 2013) to examine an updated resume system. In the end, a concept for a Real CV application is presented which showcases the necessary criteria in a more inclusive and adaptable resume format.
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    User Personas to Guide Technology Intervention Design to Support Caregiver-Assisted Medication Management
    (Oxford, 2022-11) Linden, Anna; Loganathar, Priya; Holden, Richard; Boustani, Malaz; Campbell, Noll; Ganci, Aaron; Werner, Nicole; Herron School of Art
    Informal caregivers often help manage medications for people with ADRD. Caregiver-assisted medication management has the potential to optimize outcomes for caregivers and people with ADRD, but is often associated with suboptimal outcomes. We used the user-centered design persona method to represent the needs of ADRD caregivers who manage medications for people with ADRD to guide future design decisions for technology interventions. Data were collected through virtual contextual inquiry in which caregivers (Nf24) sent daily multimedia text messages depicting medication management activities for seven days each, followed by an interview that used the messages as prompts to understand medication management needs. We applied the persona development method to the data to identify distinct caregiver personas, i.e., evidence-derived groups of prospective users of a future intervention. We used team-based affinity diagramming to organize information about participants based on intragroup (dis)similarities, to create meaningful clusters representing intervention-relevant attributes. We then used group consensus discussion to create personas based on attribute clusters. The six identified attributes differentiating personas were: 1. medication acquisition, 2. medication organization, 3. medication administration, 4. monitoring symptoms, 5. care network, 6. technology preferences. Three personas were identified based on differences on those attributes: Regimented Ruth (independent, proactive, tech savvy, controls all medications), Intuitive Ian (collaborative, uses own judgment, some technology, provides some medication autonomy), Passive Pamela (reactive, easy going, technology novice, provides full medication autonomy). These personas can be used to guide technology intervention design by evaluating how well intervention designs support each of them.
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    Designing from the Core: Facilitating Core Thinking for Sustainable Development in Design Education
    (Cumulus Association, 2022-10) Napier, Pamela; Lettis, Gwen; Herron School of Art
    How might graphic designers identify and clarify their personal values and identity so that they might develop a responsibility mindset in their design process? This has been a central question in the research of the authors Napier and Lettis, two design educators who have been collaborating across the world from the United States and Ireland, through Master’s thesis and Ph.D. work, from first-year graphic design students to senior visual communication design students, and from in-person to online teaching. Our research is driven by a deeply vested interest in personal or core values and how they relate to making sustainable or responsible design decisions. We believe that design students must be able to develop a personal awareness of their individual values and goals to not only benefit their design process and practice, but also to benefit sustainable development. “Value thinking” is a central mode of thinking encouraged in education for sustainable development, which “develops and strengthens the capacity of individuals, groups, communities, organizations and countries to make judgments and choices in favor of sustainable development” (UNECE, 2009, p. 15). Within our research, we acknowledge that value thinking also involves thinking of oneself, and the direct correlation between the “personal” and sustainability. We termed this personal value thinking or, as Lettis has termed it since, core thinking. Ann Thorpe (2007), an educator of sustainable design and author of The Designer’s Atlas of Sustainability, states: Many of the issues confronting us in the landscape of sustainability are those that feel more personal than professional, for example, your connection to nature, your politics as a citizen, or your willingness to put your personal resources toward ecological sustainability. We have found that in the context of sustainability in graphic design education (GDE) and design education generally, many programs are exclusively available to postgraduate students. Additionally, while some undergraduate education does aim to foster the development of personal values, it is unclear which processes are used to help students clarify and integrate those values into their identity and practice. This paper will describe the processes, methods, and tools that Napier and Lettis have developed to facilitate core thinking for sustainable development in different courses, at varying levels of graphic and visual communication design education. It will discuss the theoretical background of value thinking and include a high-level look at the ongoing efforts of evolving materials aimed at supporting design educators to foster sustainability-minded design students. Additionally, this paper will discuss both students’ and educators’ reflections on this ongoing work. It is the hope of the authors that a more inclusive approach to fostering sustainability-minded students and graduates will impact the role that designers can play as responsible citizens.
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    Portable Prototypes: Canterbury Badges and the Thomasaltar in Hamburg
    (MDPI, 2021) Lee, Jennifer; Herron School of Art and Design
    Pilgrims’ badges often depicted works of art located at a cult center, and these cheap, small images frequently imitated monumental works. Was this relationship ever reversed? In late medieval Hamburg, a painted altarpiece from a Hanseatic guild narrates the life of Thomas Becket in four scenes, two of which survive. In 1932, Tancred Borenius declared this altarpiece to be the first monumental expression of Becket’s narrative in northern Germany. Since then, little scholarship has investigated the links between this work and the Becket cult elsewhere. With so much visual art from the medieval period lost, it is impossible to trace the transmission of imagery with any certainty. Nevertheless, this discussion considers badges as a means of disseminating imagery for subsequent copying. This altarpiece and the pilgrims’ badges that it closely resembles may provide an example of a major work of art borrowing a composition from an inexpensive pilgrim’s badge and of the monumental imitating the miniature.
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    Rhetorical Questions and Ruminations: Examining Early Career Faculty Experiences through Found Poetry
    (University of Alberta Library, 2021-09-04) Willcox, Libba; McCormick, Kate; Herron School of Art and Design
    Transitioning from graduate student to early career faculty can often provoke uncertainty and questioning. This study explores the rhetorical and revealing nature of such questioning (i.e., Am I really this lost? Am I in the right place?). Utilizing methods from arts based research (Barone & Eisner, 2012), specifically poetic inquiry (Prendergast et al., 2009; Richardson, 1992), we created found poetry around rhetorical questions from our existing collaborative autoethnographic journal. We frame our findings with a selection of poems to provide insight into our lived experiences of transition. The question poems illustrate that our first year as assistant professors were preoccupied with managing tasks, balancing work, avoiding burnout, building relationships, and discovering how to belong in the new context. While rhetorical questions do not necessarily produce answers, questioning in a collaborative space allowed us to explore the struggle, complexity, and ambiguity of academic identity construction as early career faculty.
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    Hiroshi Sugimoto Transforms the Motionless
    (2022) Spence, Shannon
    While the average contemporary photographer creates a snapshot in time, Hiroshi Sugimoto (b. 1948) is unique in his ability to create life where there is none. Sugimoto photographed scenes of dioramas from natural history museums across America. Through his technical and artistic skill, as well as his ability to play off of the viewer’s expectation of photography, Sugimoto’s series, Dioramas, 1976-2014, are full of life even though the subjects themselves are not alive. From its inception in 1839, photography has been a tool to document the world as it is known and typically captures the image of a person, place, or object in situ. Sugimoto takes advantage of the viewer’s pre-conceived notion that the photograph must have been taken as it happened. The way Sugimoto frames the scene along with careful, intentional viewpoints creates an image that puts the viewer at the scene at what seems to be the actual moment in time. The artist’s use of black and white creates contrast and starkness within the images, which drifts towards timelessness, reckoning back to the early days of photography before color photography was introduced. In real life, the visitor experiences a fabricated scene, but Sugimoto’s photographs make the scene seem more alive than in person. In Dioramas, Sugimoto creates a sense of movement within the photographs by using a snapshot aesthetic with the edges of the scene cut off, by choosing to print in black and white, and by playing off viewers’ assumptions that a photographer is a documentarian.
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    Integrating Applied Improv into Group Art Therapy for Individuals with Eating Disorders
    (Hofstra University Annual Creative Arts Therapies Conference, 2022-04) Misluk-Gervase, Eileen
    Applied improvisation (AI) is the translation of improvisational theater principles to non-performers with the goals of “creativity, innovation, and/or meaning” (Tint & Froerer, 2014, p. 2). AI facilitates the practice of spontaneous communication and interaction, developing participants’ tolerance of uncertainty and ambiguity (Lawrence & Coaston, 2017), clarifying communication, and enhancing trust and collaboration (Sheesley, et al., 2016). AI creates a safe and trusting environment for developing relationships, adapting quickly to unfolding situations, and collaborating—skills necessary for communication in stressful situations (Rossing & Hoffmann-Longtin, 2018). The games require responsiveness to ambiguity and change, focus and attention to the present moment, and collaboration with others (Hoffmann-Longtin, et al., 2018). Clients who participate in applied improvisation have demonstrated increased willingness to participate in therapy and enhanced progress toward clinical goals (Alana & Ansaldo, 2018). [BREAK] The purpose of the presentation is to explore the use of improv games and art making directives in the development of safety and attunement, risk-taking and acceptance, and mastery and agency. Safety/attunement focuses on rapport building through activities that support mirroring and relational interactions between participants. Risk taking/acceptance focuses on letting go of intellectualization, increases uncertainty tolerance, and increases capacity for appropriate risk taking (Farley, 2017). Mastery is defined as patterns of achievement that incorporate challenges, persistence, and a view of failure as a part of gaining mastery rather than a lack of ability (American Psychological Association (APA), 2020) and includes self-esteem, self-efficacy, and resilience (Schwenke et al., 2020). Agency is viewed as the expression of actual feelings, developing spontaneity, freedom to experiment, promotion of insights into inter and intrapersonal dynamics, and collaboration (Farley, 2017). Lawrence and Coaston (2017) stated that providing opportunities to engage in improv allows for “struggle with appropriate risk taking, adaptability, and cognitive rigidity” (p. 517) and inspires divergent thinking and the promotion of self-esteem and agency (Reid-Wisdom & Perera-Delcourt, 2020). All the skills noted, are consistent with the needs of individuals with eating disorders most notably cognitive flexibility, uncertainty tolerance, and acceptance. Integrating art therapy and AI offers an alternate approach to addressing clinical needs within the therapeutic setting. [BREAK] References[BREAK] Farley, N. (2017). Improvisation as a meta-counseling skill. Journal of Creativity in Mental Health, 12(1), 115-128. https://doi.org/10.1080/15401383.2016.1191402 Lawrence, C. & Coaston, S. C. (2017). Whose line is it, anyway? Using improvisational exercises to spark counselor development. Journal of Creativity in Mental Health, 12(4), 513-528. http://doi.org/10.1080.15401383.2017.1281185 Llyod-Hazlett, J. (2020). Improv-ing clinical work with stepfamilies. Journal of Creativity in Mental Health, https://doi.org/10.1080/15401383.2020.1762817 Patrick, S. (2020). Mistakes as pathways towards creativity in counseling: A case example. Journal of Creativity in Mental Health, 15(1), 128-138. https://doi.org/10.1080/15401383.2019.1638863 Rossing, J. P. & Hoffmann-Longtin, K. (2018). Making sense of science: applied improvisation for public communication of science, technology, and health. In T.R. Dudeck & C. McClure (Eds.), Applied improvisation: Leading, collaborating, and creating beyond the theatre (pp.245-266). London, UK: Methuen Drama. Schwenke, D., Dshemuchadse, M.,Rasehorn, L., Klarholter, D., & Scherbaum, S. (2020). Improv to improve: The impact of improvisational theater on creativity, acceptance, and psychological well-being. Journal of Creativity in Mental Health. https://doi.org/10.1080/15401383.2020.1754987 Sheesley, A. P., Pfeffer, M., & Barish, B. (2016). Comedic improv therapy for the treatment of social anxiety disorder. Journal of Creativity in Mental Health, 11(2), 157-169. https://doi:10.1080/15401383.2016.1182880
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    Applied Improvisation and Art Making in Group Therapy
    (International Association of Eating Disorder Professionals annual conference, 2022-03) Misluk-Gervase, Eileen
    Applied improvisation (AI) is the translation of improvisational theater principles to non-performers with the goals of “creativity, innovation, and/or meaning” (Tint & Froerer, 2014, p. 2). AI facilitates the practice of spontaneous communication and interaction, developing participants’ tolerance of uncertainty and ambiguity (Lawrence & Coaston, 2017), clarifying communication, and enhancing trust and collaboration (Sheesley, et al., 2016). AI creates a safe and trusting environment for developing relationships, adapting quickly to unfolding situations, and collaborating—skills necessary for communication in stressful situations (Rossing & Hoffmann-Longtin, 2018). The games require responsiveness to ambiguity and change, focus and attention to the present moment, and collaboration with others (Hoffmann-Longtin, et al., 2018). Clients who participate in applied improvisation have demonstrated increased willingness to participate in therapy and enhanced progress toward clinical goals (Alana & Ansaldo, 2018). [BREAK] The purpose of the presentation is to actively engage eating disorder clinicians in AI and art making activities that support the development safety and attunement, risk-taking and acceptance, and mastery and agency. In the workshop curriculum, safety/attunement focuses on rapport building through activities that support mirroring and relational interactions between participants. Risk taking/acceptance focuses on letting go of intellectualization, increases uncertainty tolerance, and increases capacity for appropriate risk taking (Farley, 2017). Mastery is defined as patterns of achievement that incorporate challenges, persistence, and a view of failure as a part of gaining mastery rather than a lack of ability (American Psychological Association (APA), 2020) and includes self-esteem, self-efficacy, and resilience (Schwenke et al., 2020). Agency is viewed as the expression of actual feelings, developing spontaneity, freedom to experiment, promotion of insights into inter and intrapersonal dynamics, and collaboration (Farley, 2017). Lawrence and Coaston (2017) stated that providing opportunities to engage in improv allows for “struggle with appropriate risk taking, adaptability, and cognitive rigidity” (p. 517) and inspires divergent thinking and the promotion of self-esteem and agency (Reid-Wisdom & Perera-Delcourt, 2020). All the skills noted, are consistent with the needs of individuals with eating disorders most notably cognitive flexibility, uncertainty tolerance, and acceptance. AI offers an alternate approach to addressing those clinical needs within the therapeutic setting. [BREAK] References [BREAK] Farley, N. (2017). Improvisation as a meta-counseling skill. Journal of Creativity in Mental Health, 12(1), 115-128. https://doi.org/10.1080/15401383.2016.1191402 Lawrence, C. & Coaston, S. C. (2017). Whose line is it, anyway? Using improvisational exercises to spark counselor development. Journal of Creativity in Mental Health, 12(4), 513-528. http://doi.org/10.1080.15401383.2017.1281185 Llyod-Hazlett, J. (2020). Improv-ing clinical work with stepfamilies. Journal of Creativity in Mental Health, https://doi.org/10.1080/15401383.2020.1762817 Patrick, S. (2020). Mistakes as pathways towards creativity in counseling: A case example. Journal of Creativity in Mental Health, 15(1), 128-138. https://doi.org/10.1080/15401383.2019.1638863 Rossing, J. P. & Hoffmann-Longtin, K. (2018). Making sense of science: applied improvisation for public communication of science, technology, and health. In T.R. Dudeck & C. McClure (Eds.), Applied improvisation: Leading, collaborating, and creating beyond the theatre (pp.245-266). London, UK: Methuen Drama. Schwenke, D., Dshemuchadse, M.,Rasehorn, L., Klarholter, D., & Scherbaum, S. (2020). Improv to improve: The impact of improvisational theater on creativity, acceptance, and psychological well-being. Journal of Creativity in Mental Health. https://doi.org/10.1080/15401383.2020.1754987 Sheesley, A. P., Pfeffer, M., & Barish, B. (2016). Comedic improv therapy for the treatment of social anxiety disorder. Journal of Creativity in Mental Health, 11(2), 157-169. https://doi:10.1080/15401383.2016.1182880
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    Art Therapy and Applied Improvisation: High Impact Learning Strategies to Enhance Communication and Professional Identity
    (Journal of Creativity in Mental Health, 2022) Misluk-Gervase, Eileen; Ansaldo, Jim
    Students who engage in high-impact learning initiatives such internships, capstone research projects, and collaborative activities report gains in personal development that include growth in self-confidence, increase in independent work and thought, and a sense of accomplishment. These are integral to professional identity and competency in graduate training of art therapists. The authors projected that students who participate in applied improvisation workshops would identify an impact on their personal and professional development through increased skill development and confidence. Program evaluation found applied improvisation and art therapy workshops for the enhancement of graduate art therapy students’ clinical skills to be successful in increasing students’ self-assessment of communication skills and enhancing a sense of professional identity and overall competency.
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    Eating Disorders in Community Mental Health
    (2021-05) Misluk-Gervase, Eileen
    One population that can benefit significantly from therapies is that of individuals with eating disorders. Based on research in the field of eating disorders, traditional talk therapy may not effectively address the complexity and needs for recovery. Using the creative process and experiential approaches the therapist can better meet the needs of the eating disorder and co-morbid diagnoses such as mood and anxiety disorders, personality disorders, and obsessive-compulsive behaviors. With the rates of eating disorder diagnoses increasing, especially among males, those from lower-socioeconomic backgrounds, and older adults, it is imperative that clinicians receive training in the treatment of eating disorders and eating related issues to meet the clinical demand. However, most graduate art therapy and counseling programs do not include treatment protocols for eating disorders as part of the required curriculum. As a result, clinicians are under-prepared to work with this vulnerable population.