A nuclear factor-kappa B inhibiting peptide suppresses innate immune receptors and gliosis in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease
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A disproportionate increase in activated nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) has been shown to drive the Aβ deposition, neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Hence, selective targeting of activated p65 represents an attractive therapeutic approach for AD. Glucocorticoid induced leucine zipper (GILZ) is a NF-κB interactant that binds and sequesters the activated p65 in the cytoplasm. The p65 binding domain of GILZ adopts a polyproline type II helical conformation, a motif that acts as an adaptable glove in the interface with the binding partner and constitutes an excellent template for drug design. Previously, peptide analogs of the p65 binding domain of GILZ, referred to as GA have been shown to suppress pathology in the lipopolysaccharide induced model of neuroinflammation. In this study, we investigated the CNS delivery of labeled GA administered intraperitoneally in adult mice for a period of upto 24 h. Further, we evaluated the suppressive potential of GA in 5xFAD mice, an aggressive model with five genetic mutations closely associated with human AD. Groups of 5xFAD mice administered GA or control peptide intraperitoneally on alternate days for six weeks were evaluated for Aβ deposition, microglia, inflammation and innate immune responses by immunohistochemistry and real time polymerase reaction. GA was observed in proximity with NeuN positive neurons suggesting that the compound crossed the blood brain barrier to reach the brain parenchyma. Further, GA treatment decreased Aβ load, reduced Iba1 + microglia and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)+ astrocytes, inhibited inflammatory cytokines and suppressed toll like receptor (TLR-2, TLR-4) expressions in 5xFAD mice.