Research

Recent Submissions

  • Rametta, Raffaella (2018)
    The Italian Constitution guarantees the fundamental freedoms of peaceful assembly (art. 17), association (art. 18), religion (art. 19), expression (art. 21), establishment of trade unions (art. 39) and establishment of ...
  • Hartay, Eszter (2018)
    The Hungarian legislation ensures the right to everyone to establish and join organizations and communities based on freedom of association. The two traditional legal forms of nonprofit organizations are the association ...
  • Vinnikov, Oleksandr (2018)
    Ukraine is a unitary republic, and the legal procedures for POs incorporation are the same in all its jurisdictions. Associations, religious organizations and endowments that are not legal entities are allowed in Ukraine. ...
  • Marques, Ricardo André Mendonça (2018)
    There is freedom granted by the Constitution of the Portuguese Republic that safeguards fundamental rights and freedoms. Freedom of Association is recognized in Article 46 of the Constitution provided such associations are ...
  • Strečanský, Boris (2018)
    The Constitution of the Slovak Republic guarantees the “right to associate with others in clubs, societies, or other associations” Article 29 (1) of the Consitution of the Slovak Republic, and in general, individuals can ...
  • Arczewska, Magdalena (2018)
    Polish law permits individuals to act collectively through unregistered groups or organizations. Article 12 of the Constitution of the Republic of Poland from 1997 provides that “The Republic of Poland shall ensure freedom ...
  • Panov, Luben (2018)
    The Bulgarian Constitution guarantees freedom of association, and the Law on Legal Entities with Nonprofit Purposes (NGO Law) provides that both Bulgarian and foreign legal entities and individuals with legal capacity can ...
  • Giannopoulou, Christina PhD (2018)
    The Greek Constitution in article 12 clearly grants all Greek people the right to form nonprofit associations and unions, in compliance with the law. Moreover, article 14 paragraph 1 guarantees free expression indicating ...
  • Peñalosa-Esteban, Isabel (2018)
    Freedom of association is granted in the Constitution, Article 22. There are different requirements between the incorporation of foundations and associations. According to Article 8 of the Foundations Act (Ley de Fundaciones, ...
  • Ronovská, Kateřina (2018)
    Czech Law permits individuals to act collectively through unregistered groups and organizations. The formation/establishment and registration of POs (two stage character of formation) is regulated in the Czech Civil Code ...
  • von Schnurbein, Georg (2018)
    Associations and foundations are the most common legal forms for nonprofits. Both can be set up by individuals without any government interference. For an association, registration is not mandatory and only two individuals ...
  • Dutheil, Philippe-Henri (2018)
    In France, there is no restriction concerning the purpose of a PO as long as the aim of the organization is not to share profits among members or to pursue an unlawful purpose. There are several kinds of POs, including ...
  • Gabler, Ruth (2018)
    The Federal Act in Associations 2002 (Vereinsgesetz 2002) entitles the formation of associations and “any association of 2 or more individuals” can register whilst following certain regulations (nonprofit purpose) and ...
  • Breen, Dr. Oonagh B. (2018)
    Individuals are generally free to form organizations in Ireland without State approval. For POs, there are no minimum capital requirements or registration processes other than those required by the nature of the entity ...
  • Morris, Debra (2018)
    Individuals may act collectively through unregistered groups and may pursue any legal purposes. Charities (a defined sub-set of POs) can only pursue a charitable purpose, which does not include political purposes. They are ...
  • Henriksen, Lars Skov (2018)
    Denmark has guaranteed the freedom of association in its written constitution, which dates back to 1849. Articles 77, 78, and 79 guarantee freedom of expression, freedom of association, and freedom of peaceful assembly. ...
  • Sivesind, Karl Henrik (2018)
    The Register of Non-Profit Organizations, established in 2009, is intended to simplify the interaction between voluntary associations and public authorities by providing systematic statistics and policy-relevant research ...
  • Vamstad, Johan (2018)
    There are no requirements to register POs in Sweden; anyone is free to start any kind of organization at any time. Organizations can choose to register with the tax authorities in order to receive an organization number ...
  • Then, Volker (2018)
    The fundamental freedoms of expression, association, and assembly are fully granted in the Constitution. Most forms of POs require legal personality, although the association and the dependent foundation (type of trust) ...
  • van Veen, Prof.Dr. Wino J.M. (2018)
    The formation of POs is free from governmental involvement and is considered to be an act of civil law. Registration with the Trade register is compulsory only for POs if they are incorporated by notarial deed. POs that ...

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