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Human-centered designed communication tools for obesity prevention in early life
(Elsevier, 2023-07-22) Cheng, Erika R.; Moore, Courtney; Parks, Lisa; Taveras, Elsie M.; Wiehe, Sarah E.; Carroll, Aaron E.; Pediatrics, School of Medicine
Objective: How we communicate about obesity is critical as treatment paradigms shift upstream. We previously identified parental perceptions, concerns, beliefs, and communication preferences about early life obesity risk. We engaged parents of children 0 to 24 months of age and pediatricians from Indianapolis, Indiana, USA in the co-design of messages and tools that can be used to facilitate parent/provider conversations about early life obesity prevention. Methods: From April to June 2021, we conducted a series of co-design workshops with parents of children ages 0 to 24 months and pediatricians to identify their preferences for communicating obesity prevention in the setting of a pediatric well visit. Human-centered design techniques, including affinity diagraming and model building, were used to inform key elements of a communication model and communication strategy messages. These elements were combined and refined to create prototype tools that were subsequently refined using stakeholder feedback. Results: Parent participants included 11 mothers and 2 fathers: 8 white, 4 black, and 1 Asian; median age 33 years with 38% reporting annual household incomes less than $50,000. Pediatricians included 7 female and 6 male providers; 69% white. Through an iterative process of co-design, we created an exam room poster that addresses common misconceptions about infant feeding, sleep and exercise, and a behavior change plan to foster parent/provider collaboration focused on achieving children's healthy weight. Conclusions: Our hands-on, collaborative approach may ultimately improve uptake, acceptability and usability of early life obesity interventions by ensuring that parents remain at the center of prevention efforts.
Circumstances Surrounding End-of-Life in Pediatric Patients Pre- and Post-Heart Transplant: A Report from the Pediatric Heart Transplant Society
(Wiley, 2022) Cousino, Melissa K.; Yu, Sunkyung; Blume, Elizabeth D.; Henderson, Heather T.; Hollander, Seth A.; Khan, Sairah; Parent, John Jerry; Schumacher, Kurt R.; Pediatrics, School of Medicine
Background: Although mortality has decreased considerably in pediatric heart transplantation, waitlist and post-transplant death rates remain notable. End-of-life focused research in this population, however, is very limited. This Pediatric Heart Transplant Society study aimed to describe the circumstances surrounding death of pediatric heart transplant patients. Methods: A retrospective analysis of the multi-institutional, international, Pediatric Heart Transplant Society registry was conducted. Descriptive statistics and univariate analyses were performed to 1) describe end-of-life in pediatric pre- and post-heart transplant patients and 2) examine associations between location of death and technological interventions at end-of-life with demographic and disease factors. Results: Of 9217 patients (0-18 years) enrolled in the registry between 1993 and 2018, 2804 (30%) deaths occurred; 1310 while awaiting heart transplant and 1494 post-heart transplant. The majority of waitlist deaths (89%) occurred in the hospital, primarily in ICU (74%) with most receiving mechanical ventilation (77%). Fewer post-transplant deaths occurred in the hospital (22%). Out-of-hospital death was associated with older patient age (p < .01). Conclusions: ICU deaths with high use of technological interventions at end-of-life were common, particularly in patients awaiting heart transplant. In this high mortality population, findings raise challenging considerations for clinicians, families, and policy makers on how to balance quality of life amidst high risk for hospital-based death.
Launching a negotiation curriculum: Discovering and addressing challenges faced during resource negotiations
(2024-03-04) Macy, Katharine V.; Galvan, Scarlet; Fuson, Courtney
This presentation summarizes an interview study that was conducted to understand common issues and challenges that academic librarians face when negotiating with vendors. The results were used to inform content creation of a new OER launching in the first half of 2024 to teach negotiation skills and strategy.
TDP-43 forms amyloid filaments with a distinct fold in type A FTLD-TDP
(Springer Nature, 2023) Arseni, Diana; Chen, Renren; Murzin, Alexey G.; Peak-Chew, Sew Y.; Garringer, Holly J.; Newell, Kathy L.; Kametani, Fuyuki; Robinson, Andrew C.; Vidal, Ruben; Ghetti, Bernardino; Hasegawa, Masato; Ryskeldi-Falcon, Benjamin; Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, School of Medicine
The abnormal assembly of TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) in neuronal and glial cells characterizes nearly all cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and around half of cases of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD)1,2. A causal role for TDP-43 assembly in neurodegeneration is evidenced by dominantly inherited missense mutations in TARDBP, the gene encoding TDP-43, that promote assembly and give rise to ALS and FTLD3-7. At least four types (A-D) of FTLD with TDP-43 pathology (FTLD-TDP) are defined by distinct brain distributions of assembled TDP-43 and are associated with different clinical presentations of frontotemporal dementia8. We previously showed, using cryo-electron microscopy, that TDP-43 assembles into amyloid filaments in ALS and type B FTLD-TDP9. However, the structures of assembled TDP-43 in FTLD without ALS remained unknown. Here we report the cryo-electron microscopy structures of assembled TDP-43 from the brains of three individuals with the most common type of FTLD-TDP, type A. TDP-43 formed amyloid filaments with a new fold that was the same across individuals, indicating that this fold may characterize type A FTLD-TDP. The fold resembles a chevron badge and is unlike the double-spiral-shaped fold of ALS and type B FTLD-TDP, establishing that distinct filament folds of TDP-43 characterize different neurodegenerative conditions. The structures, in combination with mass spectrometry, led to the identification of two new post-translational modifications of assembled TDP-43, citrullination and monomethylation of R293, and indicate that they may facilitate filament formation and observed structural variation in individual filaments. The structures of TDP-43 filaments from type A FTLD-TDP will guide mechanistic studies of TDP-43 assembly, as well as the development of diagnostic and therapeutic compounds for TDP-43 proteinopathies.
Soft tissue displacement for detection of left ventricle apical dyskinesis with transthoracic echocardiography
(Springer, 2023) Schwartz, Brandon H.; Tamarappoo, Balaji K.; Shmueli, Hezzy; Siegel, Robert J.; Medicine, School of Medicine
We tested the hypothesis that the use of outward displacement of the soft tissue between the apex and the chest wall as seen in TTE, is a sign of apical displacement and would allow for more accurate diagnosis of apical dyskinesis. This is a retrospective study of 123 patients who underwent TTE and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) within a time frame of 6 months between 2008 and 2019. 110 subjects were deemed to have good quality studies and included in the final analysis. An observer blinded to the study objectives evaluated the echocardiograms and recorded the presence or absence of apical dyskinesis. Two independent observers evaluated the echocardiograms based on the presence or absence of outward displacement of the overlying tissue at the LV apex. Cardiac MRI was used to validate the presence of apical dyskinesis. The proportion of studies which were identified as having apical dyskinesis with conventional criteria defined as outward movement of the left ventricular apex during systole were compared to those deemed to have dyskinesis based on tissue displacement. By cardiac MRI, 90 patients had apical dyskinesis. Using conventional criteria on TTE interpretation, 21 were diagnosed with apical dyskinesis (23.3%). However, when soft tissue displacement was used as the diagnostic marker of dyskinesis, 78 patients (86.7%) were diagnosed with dyskinesis, p < 0.01. Detection of displacement of soft tissue overlying the LV apex facilitates better recognition of LV apical dyskinesis.