Salicylate administration suppresses the inflammatory response to nutrients and improves ovarian function in polycystic ovary syndrome
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Oxidative stress (OS) and inflammation are often present in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). We examined the effects of salsalate treatment on nutrient-induced OS and inflammation, ovarian androgen secretion, ovulation, and insulin sensitivity in PCOS. Eight lean insulin-sensitive women with PCOS and eight age- and body composition-matched ovulatory controls for baseline comparison participated in the study. The women with PCOS underwent a 12-wk treatment of salsalate, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, at a dose of 3 g daily. Markers of OS and inflammation were quantified in mononuclear cells (MNC) and plasma from blood drawn fasting and 2 h after saturated fat ingestion before and after treatment. Ovarian androgen secretion was assessed from blood drawn fasting and 24, 48, and 72 h after human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) administration before and after treatment. Ovulation was documented based on biphasic basal body temperatures and luteal range progesterone elevations. A two-step pancreatic clamp was performed pre- and posttreatment to measure basal endogenous glucose production (EGP) and the steady-state glucose disposal rate (GDR) during the euglycemic phase and markers of OS and inflammation in MNC and plasma during the hyperglycemic phase. Salsalate administration suppressed lipid- and glucose-stimulated reactive oxygen species generation, activated nuclear factor-κB and circulating tumor necrosis factor-α, normalized basal androgen levels, and lowered HCG-stimulated androgen secretion without altering EGP or GDR. Four salsalate-treated subjects responded with two consecutive ovulations. We conclude that in PCOS, salsalate-induced suppression of OS and inflammation ameliorates ovarian androgen hypersecretion and may induce ovulation while maintaining insulin action.