Translation, Adaptation, and Validation of the Modified Thai Version of Champion’s Health Belief Model Scale (MT-CHBMS)
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Background: While breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer death among Thai women, breast self-examination (BSE), mammography, and ultrasound use are still underutilized. There is a need to assess women’s beliefs about breast cancer and screening in different cultural settings. As a result, a tool to measure the beliefs that influence breast-cancer-screening practices is needed. Champion’s Health Belief Model Scale (CHBMS) is a valid and reliable tool for assessing individuals’ attitudes toward breast cancer and screening methods, but it has not been validated in Thai women. The study aimed to translate and validate the CHBMS for breast self-examination and mammography among Thai women and to modify the original scale by adding ultrasound items for breast cancer screening. In addition, the purpose of this study was to create a modified Thai version of the CHBMS which could be used to better understand patients’ beliefs regarding breast cancer screening in Thailand, in order to develop practical and effective interventions suited to their beliefs.
Methods: The CHBMS was translated into Thai, validated by a panel of experts, back-translated, modified by adding content about ultrasound for screening breast cancer, and pretested. Confirmatory factor analysis was used with a sample of 130 Thai women aged 40 to 70 years old.
Result: The final MT-CHBMS consisted of 64 items determining ten subscales: susceptibility, seriousness, benefits—breast self-examination, benefits—mammogram, barriers—BSE, barriers—mammogram, confidence, health motivation, benefits—ultrasound, and barriers—ultrasound. The MT-CHBMS demonstrated excellent internal consistency. The ten-factor model was best fitted to the data.
Conclusion: The MT-CHBMS was found to be a reliable and valid tool for measuring individuals’ attitudes toward breast cancer and screening methods. The scale could be easily used by healthcare providers to determine the beliefs before planning appropriate interventions to increase early detection.