Skill-level classification and performance evaluation for endoscopic sleeve gastroplasty
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Background: We previously developed grading metrics for quantitative performance measurement for simulated endoscopic sleeve gastroplasty (ESG) to create a scalar reference to classify subjects into experts and novices. In this work, we used synthetic data generation and expanded our skill level analysis using machine learning techniques.
Methods: We used the synthetic data generation algorithm SMOTE to expand and balance our dataset of seven actual simulated ESG procedures using synthetic data. We performed optimization to seek optimum metrics to classify experts and novices by identifying the most critical and distinctive sub-tasks. We used support vector machine (SVM), AdaBoost, K-nearest neighbors (KNN) Kernel Fisher discriminant analysis (KFDA), random forest, and decision tree classifiers to classify surgeons as experts or novices after grading. Furthermore, we used an optimization model to create weights for each task and separate the clusters by maximizing the distance between the expert and novice scores.
Results: We split our dataset into a training set of 15 samples and a testing dataset of five samples. We put this dataset through six classifiers, SVM, KFDA, AdaBoost, KNN, random forest, and decision tree, resulting in 0.94, 0.94, 1.00, 1.00, 1.00, and 1.00 accuracy, respectively, for training and 1.00 accuracy for the testing results for SVM and AdaBoost. Our optimization model maximized the distance between the expert and novice groups from 2 to 53.72.
Conclusion: This paper shows that feature reduction, in combination with classification algorithms such as SVM and KNN, can be used in tandem to classify endoscopists as experts or novices based on their results recorded using our grading metrics. Furthermore, this work introduces a non-linear constraint optimization to separate the two clusters and find the most important tasks using weights.