Loading-induced antitumor capability of murine and human urine
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While urine has been considered as a useful bio-fluid for health monitoring, its dynamic changes to physical activity are not well understood. We examined urine's possible antitumor capability in response to medium-level, loading-driven physical activity. Urine was collected from mice subjected to 5-minute skeletal loading and human individuals before and after 30-minute step aerobics. Six cancer cell lines (breast, prostate, and pancreas) and a mouse model of the mammary tumor were employed to evaluate the effect of urine. Compared to urine collected prior to loading, urine collected post-activity decreased the cellular viability, proliferation, migration, and invasion of tumor cells, as well as tumor weight in the mammary fat pad. Detection of urinary volatile organic compounds and ELISA assays showed that the loading-conditioned urine reduced cholesterol and elevated dopamine and melatonin. Immunohistochemical fluorescent images presented upregulation of the rate-limiting enzymes for the production of dopamine and melatonin in the brain. Molecular analysis revealed that the antitumor effect was linked to the reduction in molecular vinculin-linked molecular force as well as the downregulation of the Lrp5-CSF1-CD105 regulatory axis. Notably, the survival rate for the high expression levels of Lrp5, CSF1, and CD105 in tumor tissues was significantly lowered in the Cancer Genome Atlas database. Collectively, this study revealed that 5- or 10-minute loading-driven physical activity was sufficient to induce the striking antitumor effect by activating the neuronal signaling and repressing cholesterol synthesis. The result supported the dual role of loading-conditioned urine as a potential tumor suppressor and a source of diagnostic biomarkers.