The Effects of Nano-Hydroxyapatite in a Double Antibiotic Paste-Loaded Methycellulose Carrier on Dental Pulp Stem Cells
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The effects of hydroxyapatite in a DAP-loaded MC carrier on dental pulp stem cells
Introduction: Regenerative endodontic procedures (REP) require disinfection techniques to eliminate bacteria from the infected immature root canal system and promote new growth of the pulp-dentin complex. Double antibiotic paste (DAP), a mixture of ciprofloxacin and metronidazole, has shown efficacy in doing so while minimizing cytotoxicity on dental pulp stem cells (DPSC). Stem cells, scaffolding, and growth factors are necessary in the maturation, proliferation, and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into the root canal system. Nano-hydroxyapatite (n-HA) has a history of biocompatibility and, in addition, has shown promising effects as a tissue bioengineering material.
Objective: The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate the proliferation and mineralization of DPSC in the presence of 1% DAP and methylcellulose (MC) with varying concentrations of nano-hydroxyapatite.
Materials and Methods: DPSC were plated in 24-well plates containing culture media. The next day, semi-permeable 0.1 mm Transwell chambers were inserted into the wells to separate the reservoirs for medicaments. Treatment paste composed of methylcellulose containing 1% DAP with either 0.25%, 0.50%, or 1.0% nano-hydroxyapatite was added along with culture media. Methylcellulose alone and calcium hydroxide (Ultracal) were used as control groups. After 3 days, cells were evaluated for cytotoxic effects using an MTS proliferation assay (n = 10, in triplicate). DPSCs were also cultured with these medicaments for 7 days in osteogenic media and evaluated for alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and mineralization activity (n = 13, in triplicate). Comparisons between groups for differences in mineralization, BSA, and ALP activity were performed using analysis of variance (ANOVA), with different variances allowed for each group and a random effect included in the model to account for correlation within each of the three trials. A simulation-based model was used to adjust for multiple comparisons.
Results: Addition of n-HA treatment groups increased mineralization significantly greater than calcium hydroxide, with MC alone and MC+DAP+0.5% HA providing the greatest effect. Regarding ALP, all HA concentrations performed significantly greater than MC and DAP concentrations. Proliferation demonstrated similar metabolic activity in all experimental groups with few comparisons significant.
Conclusion: The challenge in REPs is to maintain survival, and preferably promote the proliferation and development of DPSCs into the pulp-dentin complex with a consistent treatment outcome. The combination of DAP with hydroxyapatite may allow for both disinfection and improved mineralization and cellular differentiation. This contribution has shown significant ability to increase stem cell differentiation into an osteogenic lineage as well as calcium deposition, indicating end goal results of regenerative procedures.