Prognostic Mutational Signatures of NSCLC Patients treated with chemotherapy, immunotherapy and chemoimmunotherapy
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Different types of therapy are currently being used to treat non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) depending on the stage of tumor and the presence of potentially druggable mutations. However, few biomarkers are available to guide clinicians in selecting the most effective therapy for all patients with various genetic backgrounds. To examine whether patients' mutation profiles are associated with the response to a specific treatment, we collected comprehensive clinical characteristics and sequencing data from 524 patients with stage III and IV NSCLC treated at Atrium Health Wake Forest Baptist. Overall survival based Cox-proportional hazard regression models were applied to identify mutations that were "beneficial" (HR < 1) or "detrimental" (HR > 1) for patients treated with chemotherapy (chemo), immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) and chemo+ICI combination therapy (Chemo+ICI) followed by the generation of mutation composite scores (MCS) for each treatment. We also found that MCS is highly treatment specific that MCS derived from one treatment group failed to predict the response in others. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analyses showed a superior predictive power of MCS compared to TMB and PD-L1 status for immune therapy-treated patients. Mutation interaction analysis also identified novel co-occurring and mutually exclusive mutations in each treatment group. Our work highlights how patients' sequencing data facilitates the clinical selection of optimized treatment strategies.