Quantification of orthodontic loads on teeth in the correction of canine overeruption using different archwire designs
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Introduction This study quantifies the effects of material, size of the continuous archwires, and level of overeruption on the loads on teeth in the correction of overerupted canines.
Methods An orthodontic force test (OFT) was used to measure the 3-dimensional loads delivered by the archwires to the brackets attached to the maxillary right incisors, canine, and premolars. Dentoforms simulating canine overeruptions at the 0.5 mm and 1 mm levels were made from computerized tomography scans. Archwires with 2 types of material (stainless steel [SS] and nickel-titanium [NiTi]) and 2 sizes (0.014-in and 0.016-in) were tested, respectively, on the 0.022 × 0.028-in brackets through elastomeric ligatures.
Results The forces were dominantly intrusive on the canines and extrusive on the first premolars and lateral incisors. The magnitudes of the extrusive forces were about 74% and 52% that of intrusive force on the canines, which range from −0.48 ± 0.01 N to −5.70 ± 0.14 N depending on the wire material, size, and severity of overeruption (P <0.01). The canine intrusive forces created by SS wires were about 3 times higher than that of NiTi wires with the same sizes, 0.016-in archwires were about twice higher than that of 0.014-in with the same materials, and 1 mm overeruption level doubled with respect to 0.5 mm. Significant second-order moment as coupled with the intrusive or extrusive forces.
Conclusions The intrusive and extrusive forces on teeth in the correction of canine overeruption can be quantified by the in vitro orthodontic force test, and the effects of the 3 factors significantly affect the loads on the teeth.