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Degree:
M.S.M.E.

Degree Year:
2013

Department:
Mechanical Engineering

Grantor:
Purdue University

Permanent Link:
http://hdl.handle.net/1805/4438

Keywords:
axis-switching ; saddle-back ; laminar jets ; turbulent jets ; rectangular jets

LC Subjects:
Lattice Boltzmann methods -- Research -- Evaluation ; Fluid mechanics -- Mathematical models ; Mechanics, Applied -- Mathematical models ; Jets -- Fluid dynamics -- Research -- Evaluation ; Laminar flow ; Turbulence ; Fluid dynamic measurements ; Eddies -- Mathematical models ; Vortex-motion ; Density currents ; Computational fluid dynamics ; Unsteady flow (Fluid dynamics) -- Mathematical models

Date:
2014-05-21

We numerically investigate the underlying physics of two peculiar phenomena, which are axis-switching and saddle-back velocity profile, in both laminar and turbulent rectangular jets using lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). Previously developed computation protocols based on single-relaxation-time (SRT) and multiple-relaxation-time (MRT) lattice Boltzmann equations are utilized to perform direct numerical simulation (DNS) and large eddy simulation (LES) respectively.
In the first study, we systematically study the axis-switching behavior in low aspect-ratio (AR), defined as the ratio of width over height, laminar rectangular jets with <italic>AR=1</italic> (square jet), 1.5, 2, 2.5, and 3. Focuses are on various flow properties on transverse planes downstream to investigate the correlation between the streamwise velocity and secondary flow. Three distinct regions of jet development are identified in all the five jets. The <italic>45°</italic> and <italic>90°</italic> axis-switching occur in characteristic decay (CD) region consecutively at the early and late stage. The half-width contour (HWC) reveals that <italic>45°</italic> axis-switching is mainly contributed by the corner effect, whereas the aspect-ratio (elliptic) feature affects the shape of the jet when <italic>45°</italic> axis-switching occurs. The close examinations of flow pattern and vorticity contour, as well as the correlation between streamwise velocity and vorticity, indicate that <italic>90°</italic> axis-switching results from boundary effect. Specific flow patterns for <italic>45°</italic> and <italic>90°</italic> axis-switching reveal the mechanism of the two types of axis-switching respectively.
In the second study we develop an algorithm to generate a turbulent velocity field for the boundary condition at jet inlet. The turbulent velocity field satisfies incompressible continuity equation with prescribed energy spectrum in wave space. Application study of the turbulent velocity profile is on two turbulent jets with <italic>Re=25900</italic>. In the jets with <italic>AR=1.5</italic>, axis-switching phenomenon driven by the turbulent inlet velocity is more profound and in better agreement with experimental examination over the laminar counterpart. Characteristic jet development driven by both laminar and turbulent inlet velocity profile in square jet (<italic>AR=1</italic>) is also examined. Overall agreement of selected jet features is good, while quantitative match for the turbulence intensity profiles is yet to be obtained in future study.
In the third study, we analyze the saddle-back velocity profile phenomenon in turbulent rectangular jets with AR ranging from 2 to 6 driven by the developed turbulent inlet velocity profiles with different turbulence intensity (<italic>I</italic>). Saddle-back velocity profile is observed in all jets. It has been noted that the saddle-back's peak velocities are resulted from the local minimum mixing intensity. Peak-center difference <italic>&Delta<sub>pc</sub></italic> and profound saddle-back (PSB) range are defined to quantify the saddle-back level and the effects of AR and <italic>I</italic> on saddle-back profile. It is found that saddle-back is more profound with larger AR or slimmer rectangular jets, while its relation with <italic>I</italic> is to be further determined.

Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI)