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Major Collateral Vessels Develop from Pre-existing Small Arteries

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Title: Major Collateral Vessels Develop from Pre-existing Small Arteries
Author: DiStasi, Matthew
Advisor: Unthank, Joseph
Degree: Ph.D.
Department: Department of Cellular & Integrative Physiology
Grantor: Indiana University
Permanent Link: http://hdl.handle.net/1805/1862
Abstract: There is no consensus on which vascular segment or what size of vessels is most important in the process of collateral growth, the degree to which these vessels can enlarge, or the mechanisms that mediate collateral vessel expansion and its impairment. Chapter I identifies the major collateral vessels that develop in response to femoral arterial occlusion in the pig, rat, and mouse hindlimbs for comparison to humans. Pre-existent small named arteries enlarged ~2-3-fold to become the major collateral vessels in each species, these major collaterals displayed characteristics similar to large arteries experiencing flow-mediated outward remodeling, and important differences in vascular wall thickness were observed between rodents and pigs. Chapter II utilized Rac2-/- and Nox2-/- mice to investigate the hypothesis that Nox2-NAD(P)H oxidase is required for major collateral growth subsequent to femoral arterial occlusion. Previous studies suggest bone marrow cell (BMC)-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by the Nox2 subunit of NAD(P)H oxidase plays an important role in neovascularization and recovery of hindlimb perfusion subsequent to femoral arterial occlusion; but did not investigate collateral growth. The hematopoietic cell restricted protein Rac2 has been shown to bind to and activate Nox2-NAD(P)H oxidase and Rac2-/- and Nox2-/- leukocytes display impaired ROS related functions. The data demonstrated that Rac2 and Nox2 are not essential for major collateral growth, but both are important for the recovery of hindlimb perfusion and preservation of distal tissue morphology. Chapter III investigated BMC and antioxidant therapy in the age-related impairment of collateral growth. Aging, like all cardiovascular disease risk factors is associated with elevated ROS and impaired collateral growth. Studies also suggest BMCs promote collateral growth by secreting paracrine factors but elevated ROS may affect the efficacy of BMCs. The data revealed that neither BMC injection nor antioxidant therapy via apocynin enhanced the process of major collateral artery growth in aged mice.
Keywords: collateral growth
arteriogenesis
hindlimb ischemia
reactive oxygen species
bone marrow-derived cells
aging
LC Subject: Arteries -- Growth
Ischemia
B cells
Aging
Date: 2009-03-18
Description: Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI)
Appears in Collections: Cellular & Integrative Physiology Department Theses and Dissertations


 

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