ItemPatient Activation of Persons With Opioid Use Disorder in Intensive Outpatient Treatment(Sage, 2022-05-17) Keen, Alyson; Lu, Yvonne; Oruche, Ukamaka M.; Mazurenko, Olena; Burke Draucker, Claire; School of NursingBackground High patient activation is associated with a variety of positive health outcomes. Although increasing patient activation in persons with opioid use disorder (OUD) in intensive outpatient treatment (IOT) programs may increase engagement and improve outcomes, little is known about how patient activation is manifested in these programs. Aims To describe types of instances in which persons play an active role in their IOT or show self-determination in their recovery generally (patient activation) and types of instances in which they play a passive role in their IOT or have recovery directed by others (patient nonactivation). Methods A qualitative descriptive study using data from a larger grounded theory study was conducted. Interviews were completed with 14 persons with OUD who attended an IOT program within a large health care system in the Midwest. Content analysis was used to create a typology of instances of patient activation or nonactivation in participants’ IOT experiences. Results Six types of instances were identified: (1) making and enacting one’s own treatment decisions, (2) actively collaborating with staff, (3) self-determining one’s disclosure in groups, (4) making a commitment to treatment, (5) taking responsibility for one’s recovery, and (6) taking actions to avoid return to use. Conclusions Patient activation is multidimensional and plays a salient role in IOT experiences. IOT staff should engage patients as active participants in their treatment and encourage mutual goal-setting and shared-decision but should be aware that some approaches used too early in treatment may impede recovery. ItemManaging Medications and Medication Adherence Among US Adults During the Early Phase of the COVID-19 Pandemic(Dove Press, 2023-02-11) Bartlett Ellis, Rebecca J.; Andrews, Angela; Elomba, Charles D.; Remy, Laura M.; Ruggeri, Sunny Yoo; Russell, Cynthia L.; Ruppar, Todd M.; School of NursingPurpose: Before the COVID-19 pandemic and the disruptions it brought, medication adherence was already a challenging and complex health behavior. The purpose of this study was to describe patients' interactions in clinic, pharmacy, and home contexts and associated medication management and adherence during the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic. Patients and methods: A survey questionnaire was developed using the Medication Adherence Context and Outcomes framework and distributed via social media between May and July 2020 targeting adults taking a daily prescribed medication. Survey questions assessed sociodemographics, interactions with healthcare providers, clinics, pharmacies, medication management experiences, habit strength, and life chaos perceptions during the pandemic. Medication adherence was assessed by the self-report BAASIS© scale to measure implementation, discontinuation, and overall nonadherence. Results: A total of 134 adults from the United States, mean age 50.0 (SD 16.1) years were included in this analysis. Respondents took a median of 3.50 (interquartile range 4) daily medications. Delays in seeing a provider were reported by 47 (35.1%). Pharmacy encounters were impacted; 25 (18.7%) indicated their method for obtaining medication changed. Medication nonadherence was reported among 62 (46.3%) and was significantly greater among those who delayed prescription refills (p=0.032), pillbox users (p=0.047), and those who experienced greater life chaos (p=0.040) and lower habit strength (p<0.001) in the early phase of the pandemic. Conclusion: Although the early phase of the pandemic affected access to care for nearly one-third of the sample, distance-accessible care options and strategies to obtain needed services without being in-person supported respondents medication management. Helpful strategies included provider accessibility, telehealth, home delivery/mail-order, drive-thru's, 90-day supplies, and online/automatic refills. Methods to develop and reestablish habits are critical. Care providers in clinic and pharmacy settings can educate and remind patients about services like distance-accessible technologies and online ordering of medications and establishing routines to support medication adherence. ItemAssociation Between Quality of Life and Depression in Dyads of Older Primary Care Patients and Family Members(Oxford University Press, 2022-12-20) Fowler, Nicole; Perkins, Anthony; Park, Seho; Schroeder, Matthew; Boustani, Malaz; School of NursingFamilial dyads experience illness as an interdependent unit. We evaluate the association of quality of life (QOL), as measured by physical (PCS) and mental health component (MCS) scores, with depression in dyads of older primary care patients and a family member. This is a cross sectional, descriptive study where QOL and depression were measured concurrently in the dyad using baseline data from 1809 dyads enrolled in a trial testing the benefits and harms of Alzheimer’s disease and related dementias (ADRD) screening. QOL was measured with the SF-36, depression was measured with the PHQ-9, and the association of depression with QOL was examined using an actor-partner interdependence model with distinguishable dyads. Patient mean (SD) age was 73.7 (5.7) years; 53.1% women; 85.1% white; 13.4% black. Family member mean (SD) age was 64.2 (13) years; 67.7% women; 13.4% black. A patient’s spouse/partner were 64.8% of family members. After controlling for dyadic relationship and gender, significant actor effects of depression on PCS for patient (β= -1.39; p< 0.001) and family member (β =-0.954; p< 0.001), and significant partner effects of depression on PCS for patient (β=-0.15, p< 0.05) and family member (β =-0.18; p< 0.01). There were significant actor effects of depression on MCS for patient (β =-1.2; p< 0.001) and family member (β=-1.2; p< 0.001), but depression had a significant partner effect on MCS only for patient (β = -0.08; p< 0.05). Among dyads participating in an ADRD screening trial, dyads with higher depression had lower QOL. Family member depression was associated with decreased family member and patient QOL. ItemTranslation, Adaptation, and Validation of the Modified Thai Version of Champion’s Health Belief Model Scale (MT-CHBMS)(MDPI, 2022-12-31) Suriyong, Patinya; Jiraniramai, Surin; Wongpakaran, Nahathai; Pinyopornpanish, Kanokporn; Angkurawaranon, Chaisiri; Jiraporncharoen, Wichuda; Champion, Victoria L.; Wongpakaran, Tinakon; School of NursingBackground: While breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer death among Thai women, breast self-examination (BSE), mammography, and ultrasound use are still underutilized. There is a need to assess women’s beliefs about breast cancer and screening in different cultural settings. As a result, a tool to measure the beliefs that influence breast-cancer-screening practices is needed. Champion’s Health Belief Model Scale (CHBMS) is a valid and reliable tool for assessing individuals’ attitudes toward breast cancer and screening methods, but it has not been validated in Thai women. The study aimed to translate and validate the CHBMS for breast self-examination and mammography among Thai women and to modify the original scale by adding ultrasound items for breast cancer screening. In addition, the purpose of this study was to create a modified Thai version of the CHBMS which could be used to better understand patients’ beliefs regarding breast cancer screening in Thailand, in order to develop practical and effective interventions suited to their beliefs. Methods: The CHBMS was translated into Thai, validated by a panel of experts, back-translated, modified by adding content about ultrasound for screening breast cancer, and pretested. Confirmatory factor analysis was used with a sample of 130 Thai women aged 40 to 70 years old. Result: The final MT-CHBMS consisted of 64 items determining ten subscales: susceptibility, seriousness, benefits—breast self-examination, benefits—mammogram, barriers—BSE, barriers—mammogram, confidence, health motivation, benefits—ultrasound, and barriers—ultrasound. The MT-CHBMS demonstrated excellent internal consistency. The ten-factor model was best fitted to the data. Conclusion: The MT-CHBMS was found to be a reliable and valid tool for measuring individuals’ attitudes toward breast cancer and screening methods. The scale could be easily used by healthcare providers to determine the beliefs before planning appropriate interventions to increase early detection. ItemCharacterizing pain leading to emergency medical services activation in heart failure(Wolters Kluwer, 2022) Smith, Asa B.; Jung, Miyeon; Lee, Christopher; Pressler, Susan J.; School of NursingBackground: Pain is a common but understudied symptom among patients with heart failure (HF) transported by emergency medical services (EMS). The aims were to determine explanatory factors of a primary complaint of pain and pain severity, and characterize pain among patients with HF transported by EMS. Methods: Data from electronic health records of patients with HF transported by EMS within a midwestern United States county from 2009 to 2017 were analyzed. Descriptive statistics, χ 2 , analysis of variance, and logistic and multiple linear regression analyses were used. Results: The sample (N = 4663) was predominantly women (58.1%) with self-reported race as Black (57.7%). The mean age was 64.2 ± 14.3 years. Pain was the primary complaint in 22.2% of the sample, with an average pain score of 6.8 ± 3.1 out of 10. The most common pain complaint was chest pain (68.1%). Factors associated with a primary pain complaint were younger age (odds ratio [OR], 0.97; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.96-0.97), history of myocardial infarction (OR, 1.96; 95% CI, 1.55-2.49), and absence of shortness of breath (OR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.58-0.77). Factors associated with higher pain severity were younger age ( b = -0.05, SE = 0.013), being a woman ( b = 1.17, SE = 0.357), and White race ( b = -1.11, SE = 0.349). Conclusions: Clinical and demographic factors need consideration in understanding pain in HF during EMS transport. Additional research is needed to examine these factors to improve pain management and reduce transports due to pain. ItemCognitive Dysfunction in Older Breast Cancer Survivors: An Integrative Review(Wolters Kluwer, 2022) Crouch, Adele; Champion, Victoria; Von Ah, Diane; School of NursingBackground: Approximately 60% of the more than 3.8 million breast cancer survivors (BCSs) living in the United States are 60 years or older. Breast cancer survivors experience many symptoms including cognitive dysfunction; however, little is known regarding how age affects these symptoms. Objective: This integrative review was conducted to synthesize the literature on cognitive dysfunction in older BCSs. The purpose was to (1) describe the prevalence of objective and subjective cognitive dysfunctions and (2) examine factors associated with cognitive dysfunction in older BCSs. Methods: Whittemore and Knafl's integrative review methodology was used to examine cognitive dysfunction in BCSs 60 years or older. Results: Twelve quantitative studies were included. Up to 41% of older BCSs experienced cognitive dysfunction on neuropsychological examination, and up to 64% reported cognitive dysfunction on subjective measures pretreatment. Approximately half of older BCSs experienced cognitive decline from pretreatment to posttreatment regardless of cognitive measure. The domains most impacted were memory, executive functioning, and processing speed. Objective and subjective cognitive dysfunctions were associated with age, comorbidities, chemotherapy receipt, sleep, neuropsychological symptom cluster, frailty, and quality of life. Conclusions: Cognitive dysfunction among older BCSs was common both prior to and following treatment. Cognitive dysfunction was associated with multiple factors that are compounded in the aging population and could be detrimental to quality of life and independent living. Implications to practice: Early assessment and intervention by healthcare providers, including nurses, for cognitive dysfunction in older BCSs are essential. Future research should focus on evidence-based interventions for cognitive dysfunction incorporating the unique needs of older BCSs. ItemUnderstanding Processes, Outcomes, and Contexts in Medication Adherence: The Medication Adherence Context and Outcomes (MACO) Framework(Dove Press, 2023-01-24) Bartlett Ellis, Rebecca J.; Haase, Joan E.; Ruppar, Todd M.; School of NursingPoor medication adherence is a significant problem, yet interventions to improve it have been largely ineffective. Existing ecological models indicate that adherence is multi-dimensional; however, they do not reflect understanding of context-specific processes and how they lead to adherence outcomes. A framework that reflects context-specific processes is important because it could be used to inform context-specific intervention delivery and measure associated adherence outcomes. The purpose of this paper is to describe the Medication Adherence Context and Outcomes (MACO) framework, which includes contexts (ie, clinics, pharmacies, and home) and context-specific processes (ie, shared decision-making, prescription filling strategies, home medication management) that lead to adherence outcomes (initiation, implementation, discontinuation, and persistence). The Medication and Adherence Contexts and Outcomes (MACO) framework was iteratively developed between 2015 and 2018 based on theory, practice, and research and combining patient experience journey mapping to chronologically describe the environmental contexts and actions (processes) that occur within the contexts and how they contribute to medication adherence as outcome. The three distinct yet interrelated contexts described in the MACO framework are 1) clinical encounters, 2) pharmacy encounters, and 3) day-to-day home management. Within these contexts are specific medication management actions that occur (processes) in order to produce adherence-related outcomes (initiation, implementation, and discontinuation/persistence). The MACO framework distinguishes context-specific processes and outcomes. The MACO framework may be useful to understand at which point(s) along the continuum people experience problems with managing medications. This understanding is potentially useful for developing and delivering context-specific interventions that are based on processes that underlie nonadherence and selecting adherence measures appropriate for the contexts. ItemTriangulation Approach to Developing, Evaluating, and Applying the Evolving Theory of Adolescent Acceptance of Asthma(Wiley, 2022) Kintner, Eileen Kae; Haase, Joan E.; Gibson-Young, Linda; School of NursingAcceptance is a term used by healthcare professionals regarding patients’ psychosocial adjustment to chronic conditions. This paper describes a triangulation approach, applied over 25 years, to develop and evaluate a theory of adolescent acceptance of asthma. The theory was used to guide development and evaluation of an education and counseling program focused on fostering acceptance. The approach was effective in (a) defining acceptance and isolating its attributes; (b) identifying its antecedents and consequences, and specifying relationships among them; (c) revealing overlooked variables and augmenting theory; and (d) using theory to guide development and evaluation of the self-management program. ItemInstitutional factors associated with hospital partnerships for population health: A pooled cross-sectional analysis(Wolters Kluwer, 2022) Ellis Hilts, Katy; Gibson, P. Joseph; Blackburn, Justin; Yeager, Valerie A.; Halverson, Paul K.; Menachemi, Nir; School of NursingBackground: Hospitals are increasingly engaging in partnerships to address population health in response to national policies, such as value-based payment models. However, little is known about how institutional factors influence hospital partnerships for population health. Purpose: Guided by institutional theory, we examine the association between institutional pressures (coercive, normative, and mimetic isomorphism) and hospital partnerships for population health. Methodology: A pooled cross-sectional analysis used an unbalanced panel of 10,777 hospital-year observations representing respondents to a supplemental question of the American Hospital Association's annual survey (2015-2017). The analysis included descriptive and bivariate statistics, and regression models that adjusted for repeated observations to examine the relationship between key independent variables and partnerships over time. Findings: In regression analyses, we found the most support for measures of coercive (e.g., regulatory factors) isomorphism, with nonprofit status, participation in accountable care organizations, and acceptance of bundled payments, all being consistently and significantly associated with partnerships across all organization types. Modest increases were observed from 2015 to 2017 for hospital partnerships with public health organizations (+2.8% points, p < .001), governmental organizations (+2.0% points, p = .009), schools (+4.1% points, p < .001), and businesses (+2.2% points, p = .007). Practice implications: Our results suggest that institutional factors, particularly those related to regulatory policies and programs, may influence hospital partnerships to support population health. Findings from this study can assist hospital leaders in assessing the factors that can support or impede the creation of partnerships to support their population health efforts. ItemCognitive Dysfunction Prevalence and Associated Factors in Older Breast Cancer Survivors(Elsevier, 2022) Crouch, Adele; Champion, Victoria L.; Unverzagt, Frederick W.; Pressler, Susan J.; Huber, Lesa; Moser, Lyndsi R.; Cella, David; Von Ah, Diane; School of NursingObjectives: The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence and factors associated with objective and subjective cognitive dysfunction in older breast cancer survivors (BCS). Materials and methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study leveraged previously collected data from older BCS (n = 335). Separate linear regression models were used to determine relationships between demographic factors (age, education), medical factors (comorbidities), disease factors (time since diagnosis, cancer stage), cancer-related symptoms (depressive symptoms, anxiety, fatigue, sleep disturbance) and cognitive dysfunction measures, including objective learning, delayed recall, attention, executive function-working memory, verbal fluency and subjective attentional function. Results: Cognitive dysfunction was prevalent with up to 18.6% of older BCS experiencing mild-moderate dysfunction (1.5 standard deviations below mean of non-cancer controls) in at least one cognitive domain. Poor to moderate subjective attentional function was reported by 26% of older BCS. More depressive symptoms were significantly related to poorer cognitive function including learning (p < .01), delayed recall (p < .05), verbal fluency (p < .001), and subjective attentional function (p < .001) but not attention and executive function-working memory. Age, education, anxiety, and fatigue were also negatively associated with cognitive function in some models (p < .05-0.001). Conclusion: Cognitive dysfunction is common among older BCS and depressive symptoms, anxiety, and fatigue are related factors. Importantly, depressive symptoms were not only related to self-report, but also to cognitive performance. Healthcare providers should be aware of and assess for related factors and cognitive dysfunction itself in older BCS even years after diagnosis and treatment thorough geriatric assessment. Future longitudinal research is needed to discern these relationships.