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ItemA rapid review of literature on factors associated with adult probation revocations(Taylor & Francis, 2022) Diaz, Carmen L.; Rising, Staci; Grommon, Eric; Northcutt Bohmert, Miriam; Lowder, Evan MarieCriminal justice stakeholders have increasingly relied on probation supervision as an alternative to incarceration and yet, probation revocations often result in incarceration. As such, increased understanding of the mechanisms behind revocations and strategies to reduce them is critical. We conduct a rapid review of the literature on factors associated with probation revocations. Specifically, we review 50 articles on how probation officer behavior, officer-client relationships, caseload size, supervision intensity, monetary sanctions, probation client characteristics, or programming and services are associated with probation revocations. Though the literature is limited, and findings are mixed, the most consistent findings indicate that officer-client relationships involving trust, support, respect, and empathy as well as reduced caseload sizes and cognitive behavioral therapy programs are associated with probation success while intensive supervision programs; greater monetary sanctions and nonpayment of those sanctions; and being Black and less educated are associated with poorer supervision outcomes. Implications for future research, policy, and practice are discussed. ItemAccess to Recovery and Recidivism Among Former Prison Inmates(Sage, 2015) Ray, Bradley; Grommon, Eric; Buchanan, Victoria; Brown, Brittany; Watson, Dennis P.; Department of Health Policy and Management, Richard M. Fairbanks School of Public HealthAccess to Recovery (ATR) is a SAMHSA-funded initiative that offers a mix of clinical and supportive services for substance abuse. ATR clients choose which services will help to overcome barriers in their road to recovery, and a recovery consultant provides vouchers and helps link the client to these community resources. One of ATR’s goals was to provide services to those involved in the criminal justice system in the hopes that addressing substance abuse issues could reduce subsequent criminal behaviors. This study examines this goal by looking at recidivism among a sample of clients in one state’s ATR program who returned to the community after incarceration. Results suggest there were few differential effects of service selections on subsequent recidivism. However, there are significant differences in recidivism rates among the agencies that provided ATR services. Agencies with more resources and a focus on prisoner reentry had better recidivism outcomes than those that focus only on substance abuse services. ItemAdoption of Hazard Adjustments by Large and Small Organizations: Who is Doing the Talking and Who is Doing the Walking?(Risk, Hazards & Crisis in Public Policy, 2011-10) Sadiq, Abdul-AkeemEnvironmental hazards pose a considerable and genuine threat to the survival of organizations. However, organizations can increase their likelihood of survival by adopting various hazard adjustments. Prior studies on hazard adjustments have found a positive relationship between the adoption of hazard adjustments and organization size. However, no study on hazard adjustments has grouped hazard adjustments into active and passive and studied the relationship between active and passive hazard adjustments and organization size. The author investigates whether large organizations adopt more active and passive hazard adjustments than small organizations, using data from a survey of 227 organizations in Memphis, Tennessee. The results show that large organizations adopt more active and passive hazard adjustments than small organizations and both large and small organizations engage in different types of hazard adjustments. Item“After a finding of Noncompliance, What?!”(2017) Bean, Andrew; Shields, Katelyn; Baker, Allen; Ayers, Natasha; Barnhart, Sarah; Beck, Darcy; Brooks, Willie E.; Cherpas, Melissa; Cooper, Quintin; Plummer, Heather; Rai, Punam; Russ, Kelly; Foley, William A., Jr.Treaties have long been the cornerstones of international relations. They can be seen as one of the sole mechanisms to formalize agreements between sovereign states. In principle, these agreements are legally binding. In practice, the result is less certain. Issues ranging from the how the country views itself on the international stage to the specific treaty terms and enforcement mechanisms can all effect prospects for compliance. What is certain is the disruption and uncertainty that noncompliance causes. If not addressed, a treaty’s utility will eventually erode to the point where the agreement has no force. Other countries would also perceive little value in treaty ratification if compliance cannot be sufficiently verified. This report focuses on current issues of noncompliance with Russia, Syria, Iran, and North. Korea. Key themes arise across these cases and point to specific factors that impact treaty compliance. The report distills these key themes into general and case-specific recommendations for bringing a country back from noncompliance. ItemAiming at a data driven definition of volunteer types: The key to improved volunteer management practices(International Society for Third-Sector Research (ISTR), 2014) Walk, Marlene; Willems, JurgenDue to the huge heterogeneity of volunteering, generalizability of context specific findings from the literature regarding volunteer management practices is often limited. Furthermore, it seems that practitioner recommendations are consequently often too narrow or at times contrasting. To deal with this gap, we aim at a data driven approach to cluster volunteers into more homogeneous types, in order to enable (a) comparability of various volunteer contexts, and (b) differentiation of volunteer management strategies. Therefore, we apply an exploratory factor analysis, a cluster analysis and a canonical correlation analysis on a representative nationwide survey in Germany regarding volunteering behavior. Findings are however not robust and not suitable for further substantial interpretation, as the multivariate characteristics of the constructs probed for in the German Survey on Volunteering (GSV) are of limited quality (at least for our statistical analysis). Hence, we clarify the value of more elaborate questions in future large-scale data collection, and we discuss the remaining trade-off in the literature regarding generalizable but limited findings, versus more robust but context specific findings. ItemAlcohol outlets, social disorganization, and non-violent crimes in urban neighborhoods(Taylor & Francis, 2016) Snowden, Aleksandra J.; Stucky, Thomas D.; Pridemore, William Alex; School of Public and Environmental AffairsMany studies show an association between alcohol outlets and violence, though fewer consider non-violent crime. We add to this literature using block group data from Milwaukee, Wisconsin, to explore whether (1) on- and off-premise alcohol outlet density is related to thefts from vehicles and vandalism and (2) social disorganization moderates these associations. Using spatially informed regression models, we found positive effects of on-premise alcohol outlet density on thefts from vehicles. We also found positive effects of on- and off-premise alcohol outlet density on vandalism. Social disorganization was not a consistent moderator of these associations. ItemAll earned revenue is not created equal: Revenue embeddedness as a framework for exploring crowding-in/crowding-out effects(2021) Levine Daniel, JamieNonprofit organizations increasingly rely on earned revenue to sustain their mission-driven activities. Previous research examining the effects of earned revenue on other income streams tends to study earned revenue in the aggregate. Using panel data from 12,372 organizations from 2010-2015, this analysis uses a framework of revenue embeddedness to link earned revenue activities to mission and analyze the effects of earned revenue activities on donations. Earned revenue activities offering new products or services to existing donors appear to complement individual donations. These findings have theoretical and practical applications related to how nonprofits pursue earned revenue. ItemAll plug-in electric vehicles are not the same: Predictors of preference for a plug-in hybrid versus a battery-electric vehicle(Elsevier, 2018-12) Lane, Bradley W.; Dumortier, Jerome; Carley, Sanya; Siddiki, Saba; Clark-Sutton, Kyle; Graham, John D.; School of Public and Environmental AffairsThis study analyzes data from a survey of drivers (n = 1080) administered in late 2013 to assess factors that influence potential car buyers to consider two different types of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) in the United States: plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and battery electric vehicles (BEVs). The results indicate distinct profiles of respondents preferring PHEVs, which have a gasoline backup engine, versus battery BEVs, which rely solely on a battery for power. Respondents interested in selecting a PHEV consider it more for its economic benefits, such as reduced gasoline and maintenance expenditures. Respondents preferring a BEV are drawn to its environmental and technological appeal. The absence of range anxiety for PHEV is a major factor influencing potential PEV buyers. ItemAlternative models of instant drug testing: evidence from an experimental trial(Springer, 2012-12-12) Grommon, Eric; Cox, Stephen M.; Davidson, William S.; Bynum, Timothy S.Objective This study describes and provides relapse and recidivism outcome findings related to an experimental trial evaluating the viability of frequent, random drug testing with consequences for use. Methods The sample consisted of 529 offenders released on parole. An experimental design with random assignment to one of three groups was employed. The Experimental Group received frequent, random drug testing with instant results, immediate sanctions, and referral for substance abuse treatment. Control Group I received frequent, random drug testing and treatment referral, but did not receive immediate test results or immediate sanctions. Control Group II followed standard parole practice. Members of this group were not tested on a random basis and did not receive immediate sanctions. Repeated measures ANOVA and survival analysis techniques were used to explore group differences. Results Frequent monitoring of drug use with randomized testing protocols, immediate feedback, and certain consequences is effective in lowering rates of relapse and recidivism. The effectiveness is particularly salient in the short term during the period of exposure to testing conditions. Conclusions The findings lend support to the use of randomized testing with swift and certain sanctions with parolees. Additional quality evidence is necessary to generalize and refine findings from this study and others that focus on sanction certainty. Future replications must consider the immediacy of test result and sanction execution as well as the length of exposure to randomized testing periods. ItemAmerican jihadi terrorism: A comparison of homicides and unsuccessful plots(Taylor & Francis, 2016) Gruenewald, Jeff; Klein, Brent R.; Freilich, Joshua D.; Chermak, Steven; School of Public and Environmental AffairsWhile the number of American jihadi terrorist attacks remains relatively rare, terrorist plots thwarted by law enforcement have increased since September 11, 2001. Although these law enforcement blocks of would-be terrorists are considered counterterrorism triumphs by the FBI, human rights and civil liberty watch groups have conversely suggested that those who plan for attacks alongside government informants and undercover agents may be unique and essentially dissimilar from terrorists. Underlying this debate is the empirical question of how planned yet unsuccessful attacks and their plotters compare to successful terrorist homicides and their perpetrators. The current study addresses this question by comparatively examining jihadi terrorist homicides and unsuccessful plots occurring in part or wholly on U.S. soil between 1990 and 2014. Data for this study come from the U.S. Extremist Crime Database (ECDB), an open-source database with information on terrorism and extremist crimes. Based on these data, descriptive statistics are provided for several incident, offender, and target variables across three jihadi terrorist violence categories, including homicides, plots with specified targets, and plots with non-specific targets. We find several important differences across categories of terrorist violence, suggesting that unsuccessful plotters and their intended crimes vary from their more successful terrorist counterparts.