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ItemAmpicillin/Sulbactam Treatment Modulates NMDA Receptor NR2B Subunit and Attenuates Neuroinflammation and Alcohol Intake in Male High Alcohol Drinking Rats(MDPI, 2020-07-20) Alasmari, Fawaz; Alhaddad, Hasan; Wong, Woonyen; Bell, Richard L.; Sari, Youssef; Psychiatry, School of MedicineExposure to ethanol commonly manifests neuroinflammation. Beta (β)-lactam antibiotics attenuate ethanol drinking through upregulation of astroglial glutamate transporters, especially glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1), in the mesocorticolimbic brain regions, including the nucleus accumbens (Acb). However, the effect of β-lactam antibiotics on neuroinflammation in animals chronically exposed to ethanol has not been fully investigated. In this study, we evaluated the effects of ampicillin/sulbactam (AMP/SUL, 100 and 200 mg/kg, i.p.) on ethanol consumption in high alcohol drinking (HAD1) rats. Additionally, we investigated the effects of AMP/SUL on GLT-1 and N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor subtypes (NR2A and NR2B) in the Acb core (AcbCo) and Acb shell (AcbSh). We found that AMP/SUL at both doses attenuated ethanol consumption and restored ethanol-decreased GLT-1 and NR2B expression in the AcbSh and AcbCo, respectively. Moreover, AMP/SUL (200 mg/kg, i.p.) reduced ethanol-increased high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) and receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) expression in the AcbSh. Moreover, both doses of AMP/SUL attenuated ethanol-elevated tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in the AcbSh. Our results suggest that AMP/SUL attenuates ethanol drinking and modulates NMDA receptor NR2B subunits and HMGB1-associated pathways. ItemCellular players that shape evolving pathology and neurodegeneration following traumatic brain injury(Elsevier, 2018) Puntambekar, Shweta S.; Saber, Maha; Lamb, Bruce T.; Kokiko-Cochran, Olga N.; Medical and Molecular Genetics, School of MedicineTraumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the leading causes of death and disability worldwide, and has emerged as a critical risk factor for multiple neurodegenerative diseases, particularly Alzheimer’s disease (AD). How the inflammatory cascade resulting from mechanical stress, axonal shearing and the loss of neurons and glia following initial impact in TBI, contributes to the development of AD-like disease is unclear. Neuroinflammation, characterized by blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction and activation of brain-resident microglia and astrocytes, resulting in secretion of inflammatory mediators and subsequent recruitment of peripheral immune cells has been the focus of extensive research in attempts to identify drug-targets towards improving functional outcomes post TBI. While knowledge of intricate cellular interactions that shape lesion pathophysiology is incomplete, a major limitation in the field is the lack of understanding of how distinct cell types differentially alter TBI pathology. The aim of this review is to highlight functional differences between populations of bone marrow derived, infiltrating monocytes/macrophages and brain-resident microglia based on differential expression of the chemokine receptors CCR2 and CX3CR1. This review will focus on how unique subsets of mononuclear phagocytes shape TBI pathophysiology, neurotoxicity and BBB function, in a disease-stage dependent manner. Additionally, this review summarizes the role of multiple microglia and macrophage receptors, namely CCR2, CX3CR1 and Triggering Receptor Expressed on Myeloid Cells-2 (TREM2) in pathological neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration vs. recovery following TBI. TREM2 has been implicated in mediating AD-related pathology, and variants in TREM2 are particularly important due to their correlation with exacerbated neurodegeneration. Finally, this review highlights behavioral outcomes associated with microglial vs. macrophage variances, the need for novel treatment strategies that target unique subpopulations of peripheral macrophages, and the importance of development of therapeutics to modulate inflammatory functions of brain-resident microglia at specific stages of TBI. ItemChlorpyrifos Oxon Primes Microglia: Enhanced LPS-Induced TNFα Production(Office of the Vice Chancellor for Research, 2016-04-08) Kouame, Elaine; Brookins, Savannah; Jayaraj, Richard L.; Taetzsch, Thomas; Mumaw, Christy; Block, Michelle L.Microglia, the resident innate immune cells of the brain, respond to various environmental stimuli, including factors from surrounding tissue and from systemic inputs. These stimuli impact microglial function in both health and disease. Increasing evidence implicates microglia and neuroinflammation in Gulf War illness (GWI) pathology. Gulf War illness is an untreatable chronic multi symptomatic disorder that affects about 30% of Gulf War veterans. It has been proposed that “multiple hits” from exposure to various environmental neurotoxicants such as Chlorpyrifos (CPF), an organophosphate pesticide, combined with low inflammation may initiate exaggerated and persistent central nervous system (CNS) pathology to drive GWI. CPF oxon, an active metabolite of CPF, is associated with deleterious CNS effects, but the role of microglia behind this phenomenon is not fully understood.To investigate the effects of CPF oxon on microglia, we assessed microglial ROS, pro-inflammatory cytokine factors, and NF-κB p50 DNA binding activity in the presence of CPF oxon. HAPI microglia cells were treated with CPF oxon (1μM-1nM), which resulted in a dose dependent increase in H2O2 production at 3 hours and elevated superoxide at 30 minutes. CPF oxon failed to initiate TNFα and nitric oxide from microglia cultures. However, CPF oxon significantly decreased NF-κB p50 binding to DNA in microglia, a key redox signaling mechanism linked to microglial priming. Consistent with this premise, pre-treatment with CPF oxon (0.5μM) amplified LPSinduced TNFα production in microglia and neuron-glia cultures. Moreover, when CPF oxon and LPS challenged cells were pre-treated with DPI, a NOX2 inhibitor, we found a significant reduction in TNFα response when compared to non-treated cells, supporting that NOX2 may regulate CPF oxon priming in microglia. These data suggest that CPF oxon may induce ROS production in microglia to reprogram these cells to become more sensitive to pro-inflammatory stimuli (priming). ItemHX600, a synthetic agonist for RXR-Nurr1 heterodimer complex, prevents ischemia-induced neuronal damage(Elsevier, 2018-10) Loppi, S.; Kolosowska, N.; Kärkkäinen, O.; Korhonen, P.; Huuskonen, M.; Grubman, A.; Dhungana, H.; Wojciechowski, S.; Pomeshchik, Y.; Giordano, M.; Kagechika, H.; White, A.; Auriola, S.; Koistinaho, J.; Landreth, Gary E.; Hanhineva, K.; Kanninen, K.; Malm, T.; Anatomy and Cell Biology, School of MedicineIschemic stroke is amongst the leading causes of death and disabilities. The available treatments are suitable for only a fraction of patients and thus novel therapies are urgently needed. Blockage of one of the cerebral arteries leads to massive and persisting inflammatory reaction contributing to the nearby neuronal damage. Targeting the detrimental pathways of neuroinflammation has been suggested to be beneficial in conditions of ischemic stroke. Nuclear receptor 4A-family (NR4A) member Nurr1 has been shown to be a potent modulator of harmful inflammatory reactions, yet the role of Nurr1 in cerebral stroke remains unknown. Here we show for the first time that an agonist for the dimeric transcription factor Nurr1/retinoid X receptor (RXR), HX600, reduces microglia expressed proinflammatory mediators and prevents inflammation induced neuronal death in in vitro co-culture model of neurons and microglia. Importantly, HX600 was protective in a mouse model of permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion and alleviated the stroke induced motor deficits. Along with the anti-inflammatory capacity of HX600 in vitro, treatment of ischemic mice with HX600 reduced ischemia induced Iba-1, p38 and TREM2 immunoreactivities, protected endogenous microglia from ischemia induced death and prevented leukocyte infiltration. These anti-inflammatory functions were associated with reduced levels of brain lysophosphatidylcholines (lysoPCs) and acylcarnitines, metabolites related to proinflammatory events. These data demonstrate that HX600 driven Nurr1 activation is beneficial in ischemic stroke and propose that targeting Nurr1 is a novel candidate for conditions involving neuroinflammatory component. ItemIdentification of N-benzyltetrahydroisoquinolines as novel anti-neuroinflammatory agents(Elsevier, 2018-11) Gabet, Brian; Kuo, Ping-Chang; Fuentes, Steven; Patel, Yamini; Adow, Ahmed; Alsakka, Mary; Avila, Paula; Beam, Teri; Yen, Jui-Hung; Brown, Dennis A.; Medicine, School of MedicineA series of simplified berberine analogs was designed, synthesized, and evaluated for anti-inflammatory activity. SAR studies identified N-benzyltetrahydroisoquinoline 7d as a potent berberine analog. 7d suppressed LPS-induced inflammatory cytokine levels in both BV2 cells and primary microglia. Taken together, our results suggest that simplified BB analogs have therapeutic potential as a novel class of anti-neuroinflammatory agents. ItemNetwork medicine links SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 infection to brain microvascular injury and neuroinflammation in dementia-like cognitive impairment(BMC, 2021-06) Zhou, Yadi; Xu, Jielin; Hou, Yuan; Leverenz, James B.; Kallianpur, Asha; Mehra, Reena; Liu, Yunlong; Yu, Haiyuan; Pieper, Andrew A.; Jehi, Lara; Cheng, Feixiong; Medical and Molecular Genetics, School of MedicineBackground Dementia-like cognitive impairment is an increasingly reported complication of SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, the underlying mechanisms responsible for this complication remain unclear. A better understanding of causative processes by which COVID-19 may lead to cognitive impairment is essential for developing preventive and therapeutic interventions. Methods In this study, we conducted a network-based, multimodal omics comparison of COVID-19 and neurologic complications. We constructed the SARS-CoV-2 virus-host interactome from protein-protein interaction assay and CRISPR-Cas9-based genetic assay results and compared network-based relationships therein with those of known neurological manifestations using network proximity measures. We also investigated the transcriptomic profiles (including single-cell/nuclei RNA-sequencing) of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) marker genes from patients infected with COVID-19, as well as the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 entry factors in the brains of AD patients not infected with SARS-CoV-2. Results We found significant network-based relationships between COVID-19 and neuroinflammation and brain microvascular injury pathways and processes which are implicated in AD. We also detected aberrant expression of AD biomarkers in the cerebrospinal fluid and blood of patients with COVID-19. While transcriptomic analyses showed relatively low expression of SARS-CoV-2 entry factors in human brain, neuroinflammatory changes were pronounced. In addition, single-nucleus transcriptomic analyses showed that expression of SARS-CoV-2 host factors (BSG and FURIN) and antiviral defense genes (LY6E, IFITM2, IFITM3, and IFNAR1) was elevated in brain endothelial cells of AD patients and healthy controls relative to neurons and other cell types, suggesting a possible role for brain microvascular injury in COVID-19-mediated cognitive impairment. Overall, individuals with the AD risk allele APOE E4/E4 displayed reduced expression of antiviral defense genes compared to APOE E3/E3 individuals. Conclusion Our results suggest significant mechanistic overlap between AD and COVID-19, centered on neuroinflammation and microvascular injury. These results help improve our understanding of COVID-19-associated neurological manifestations and provide guidance for future development of preventive or treatment interventions, although causal relationship and mechanistic pathways between COVID-19 and AD need future investigations. ItemPurinergic Receptors of the Central Nervous System: Biology, PET Ligands, and Their Applications:(Sage, 2020-04-10) Zarrinmayeh, Hamideh; Territo, Paul R.; Radiology and Imaging Sciences, School of MedicinePurinergic receptors play important roles in central nervous system (CNS). These receptors are involved in cellular neuroinflammatory responses that regulate functions of neurons, microglial and astrocytes. Based on their endogenous ligands, purinergic receptors are classified into P1 or adenosine, P2X and P2Y receptors. During brain injury or under pathological conditions, rapid diffusion of extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) or uridine triphosphate (UTP) from the damaged cells, promote microglial activation that result in the changes in expression of several of these receptors in the brain. Imaging of the purinergic receptors with selective Positron Emission Tomography (PET) radioligands has advanced our understanding of the functional roles of some of these receptors in healthy and diseased brains. In this review, we have accumulated a list of currently available PET radioligands of the purinergic receptors that are used to elucidate the receptor functions and participations in CNS disorders. We have also reviewed receptors lacking radiotracer, laying the foundation for future discoveries of novel PET radioligands to reveal these receptors roles in CNS disorders. ItemSignificance of NF-κΒ as a pivotal therapeutic target in the neurodegenerative pathologies of Alzheimer’s disease and multiple sclerosis(Taylor and Francis, 2015-04) Srinivasan, Mythily; Lahiri, Debomoy K.; Department of Oral Pathology, Medicine and Radiology, Indiana University School of DentistryIntroduction: Advances in molecular pathogenesis suggest that the chronic inflammation is a shared mechanism in the initiation and progression of multiple neurodegenerative diseases with diverse clinical manifestations such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and Multiple sclerosis (MS). Restricted cell renewal and regenerative capacity make the neural tissues extremely vulnerable to the uncontrolled inflammatory process leading to irreversible tissue damage. Areas covered: A predominant consequence of increased inflammatory signaling is the upregulation of the transcription factor, NF-κB with subsequent neuroprotective or deleterious effects depending on the strength of the signal and the type of NF-κB dimers activated. We discuss the interplay between neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration keeping in focus NF-κB signaling as the point of convergence of multiple pathways associated with the development of the neurodegenerative pathologies, AD and MS. Expert opinion: Considerable interest exists in developing efficient NF-κB inhibitors for neurodegenerative diseases. The review includes an overview of natural compounds and rationally designed agents that inhibit NF-κB and mediate neuroprotection in AD and MS. The key chemical moieties of the natural and the synthetic compounds provide efficient leads for the development of effective small molecule inhibitors that selectively target NF-κB activation; this would result in the desired benefit to risk therapeutic effects. ItemTraumatic brain injury in hTau model mice: Enhanced acute macrophage response and altered long-term recovery(Liebert, 2017) Kokiko-Cochran, Olga N.; Saber, Maha; Puntambekar, Shweta; Bemiller, Shane; Katsumoto, Atsuko; Lee, Yu-Shang; Bhaskar, Kiran; Ransohoff, Richard M.; Lamb, Bruce T.; Department of Medical and Molecular Genetics, School of MedicineTBI induces widespread neuroinflammation and accumulation of microtubule associated protein tau (MAPT) - two key pathological features of tauopathies. This study sought to characterize the microglial/macrophage response to TBI in genomic-based MAPT transgenic mice in a Mapt knockout background (called hTau). Two-month-old hTau and age-matched control male and female mice received a single lateral fluid percussion TBI or sham injury. Separate groups of mice were aged to an acute (3 days post-injury [DPI]) or chronic (135 DPI) post-injury time point. As judged by tissue immunostaining for macrophage markers, microglial/macrophage response to TBI was enhanced at 3 DPI in hTau mice compared to control TBI and sham mice. However, MAPT phosphorylation increased in hTau mice regardless of injury group. Flow cytometric analysis revealed distinct populations of microglia and macrophages within all groups at 135 DPI. Unexpectedly, microglial reactivity was significantly reduced in hTau TBI mice compared to all other groups. Instead, hTau TBI mice showed a persistent macrophage response. In addition, TBI enhanced MAPT pathology in the temporal cortex and hippocampus of hTau TBI mice compared to controls 135 DPI. A battery of behavioral test revealed that TBI in hTau mice resulted in compromised use of spatial search strategies to complete a water maze task despite lack of motor or visual deficits. Collectively, these data indicate that the presence of wild-type human tau alters the microglial/macrophage response to a single TBI, induces delayed, region-specific MAPT pathology, and alters cognitive recovery; however, the causal relationship between these events remains unclear. These results highlight the potential significance of communication between MAPT and microglia/macrophages following TBI and emphasize the role of neuroinflammation in post-injury recovery.