Browsing by Subject "motivation"
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ItemAdapting Writing Center Pedagogy for Composition Classrooms: A Metacognitive Approach(2012-05-04) Gellin, Laura M.; Fox, Stephen L.; Buchenot, Andre; Hogue, Teresa MolinderWhile a writing center tutor may view her role as a coach, a commentator, and a counselor, the tutor actually serves as scaffolding, a temporary, supportive replacement of the processes more experienced writers can manage alone without a tutor, namely, the metacognitive processes of self-assessing, self-monitoring, and self-motivating. Metacognition then becomes the essential factor in adapting writing center practices into the composition classroom. By re-conceptualizing the three roles of a writing center tutor and re-visioning the classroom into a more “pure” learning space, tutor-teachers improve students’ writing skills, increase their engagement, and redirect students’ focus toward the writing process rather than the grade. To demonstrate the efficacy of this adapted writing center approach in the composition classroom, I created an authentic, challenging project in which the pre-project activities, task design, work process, and reflection assignment enact my proposed theory. By adopting this approach, tutor-teachers ultimately empower students and design compositional tasks that act as a catalyst for transforming the way students understand themselves as writers and as students. ItemApplying theory to overcome internal barriers for healthy behavior change in adults with intellectual disabilities(Sage, 2021-06) Oliver, Amy; Munk, Niki; Stanton-Nichols, Kathleen A; Health Sciences, School of Health and Human SciencesAdults with disabilities are 57% less physically active than individuals without disabilities and two times as likely to be obese. With obesity, adults with disabilities also face increased risk of comorbid disabilities stemming from obesity. The purpose of this theoretical case study was to identify key behavioral change theories which may be utilized to increase physical activity levels in adults with intellectual disabilities. The Self-Efficacy Theory and Self-Determination Theory both present constructs for understanding behavior change, and many of these constructs are interrelated which strongly suggests many behavioral change theories identify internal barriers for change. With theoretical case studies, these theories are examined within the context of adapted physical activity to depict how the Self-Efficacy Theory and Self-Determination Theory could be utilized to increase physical activity in individuals with intellectual disabilities. ItemFactors Associated with Student Performance in Advanced Accounting and Contemporary Financial Accounting Issues: An Empirical Study in a Commuter University(2010) Maksy, Mostafa M.; Zheng, LinNo prior study that we are aware of has considered the associations between motivation, actual ability, self-perceived ability, and distraction factors and student performance in advanced level undergraduate accounting courses. This study considers the associations between these four factors and student performance in Advanced Accounting and Contemporary Financial Accounting Issues. Students enrolled in a highly diversified, commuter, public university located in one of the largest cities in the United States provided responses to 12 questions used as independent variables. Of the three variables used as proxies for motivation, the grade the student would like to make in the course was found to be significantly associated with student performance, but intention to take the CPA exam or attend graduate school were not. Additionally, the grade in Intermediate Accounting II and GPA (used as proxies for actual ability) were found to be strong predictors of student performance. Self-perceived reading and listening abilities had moderate associations with student performance, but self-perceived writing and math abilities did no Finally, holding non-accounting-related jobs, working high numbers of hours per week, and taking on higher course loads during the semester are factors which were, surprisingly, not significantly correlated with student performance. One important implication of this study is that accounting faculty need to find ways to motivate their students, but need not discourage them to take more courses per semester or work more hours per week outside of school. ItemLearning to Talk Back to Texts(Wiley, 2018-05) Leland, Christine H.; Ociepka, Anne; Kuonen, Kate; Bangert, Sara; School of EducationThis article describes an informal study that focused on teaching eighth graders to take a critical stance and talk back to texts. In this era of “fake news,” “alternative facts,” and what has been called a “post‐truth” culture, it is imperative that students do not simply accept everything they read, see, or hear at face value. They must be made aware that information presented as fact is not necessarily true and that it is up to them to identify the messages embedded in texts before deciding whether they agree with them, disagree with them, or need more information to make a decision. Data sources include students’ responses to three sophisticated picture books, their responses to questions about what talking back means and why people do it, examples of students talking back to common sayings, and examples of them talking back to an instance of administrative censorship. ItemMotivation, Satisfaction, and Retention of Sport Management Student Volunteers(Sagamore Publishing LLC, 2017) Johnson, James E.; Giannoulakis, Chrysostomos; Felver, Nathan; Judge, Lawrence W.; David, Pierce A.; Scott, Beau F.Sport management programs often partner with intercollegiate athletic departments or community sport organizations to provide student volunteers. Motivating, satisfying, and retaining the student population may constitute a challenge for academic program stakeholders. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between motivation, satisfaction, and retention of volunteers at undergraduate sport management programs. Three hundred and twenty-two undergraduate students from five Midwestern institutions completed a 46-item questionnaire assessing their volunteer motivation, satisfaction, and retention. Results indicated students were predominantly motivated to volunteer by Love of Sport and Career motivation factors. Career, Social, Understanding, and Enhancement motivations significantly aided in predicting satisfaction, while Career, Social, and satisfaction significantly predicted retention. Implications for sport management academic programs and directions for future research are discussed. ItemOn Mourning and Recovery: Integrating Stages of Grief and Change Toward a Neuroscience-Based Model of Attachment Adaptation in Addiction Treatment(Guilford, 2017) Chambers, R. Andrew; Wallingford, Sue C.; Psychiatry, School of MedicineInterpersonal attachment and drug addiction share many attributes across their behavioral and neurobiological domains. Understanding the overlapping brain circuitry of attachment formation and addiction illuminates a deeper understanding of the pathogenesis of trauma-related mental illnesses and comorbid substance use disorders, and the extent to which ending an addiction is complicated by being a sort of mourning process. Attention to the process of addiction recovery—as a form of grieving—in which Kubler-Ross's stages of grief and Prochaska's stages of change are ultimately describing complementary viewpoints on a general process of neural network and attachment remodeling, could lead to more effective and integrative psychotherapy and medication strategies. ItemThe Role of Motivation and Expectancy in the Placebo Effect(2012-06-21) Aigner, Carrie J.; Svanum, Soren; Rand, Kevin L.; Williams, Jane R.; Ashburn-Nardo, LesliePlacebo has been found to be an important component of treatments including psychological and pharmacological treatment of depression, transplant surgery for Parkinson’s, acupuncture, smoking cessation interventions, and analgesic treatment of pain. Although the placebo effect has been observed across a wide range of disciplines, the effect sizes vary widely and it is not well understood how placebo effects are produced. The current study draws upon research in perception and motivation to propose a more comprehensive model of the placebo effect. Specifically, the model proposes that more motivated persons pay greater attention to bodily sensations and other stimuli, which are then interpreted according to expectations, producing a placebo response. In the current study, both motivation and outcome expectancy were manipulated, creating a 2x2 study design. College students (N=152) were asked to evaluate a series of placebo pheromone substances (slightly scented water) and attention/task diligence was assessed as the amount of time spent on the rating task and the number of evaluations made. The placebo response was assessed as the attractiveness rating of the chosen sample and the variability in ratings, with greater variability and higher attractiveness ratings indicating greater placebo response. It was predicted that those in the high motivation group would have greater diligence on the rating task, which would, in turn, lead to greater placebo response. It was further predicted that there would be a main effect for expectancy on placebo response. Consistent with hypothesized effects, more highly motivated students had greater placebo responses, and the relationship was mediated by task diligence. Thus, as students spent greater time on the evaluation task, they found the scent of their chosen sample to be more pleasing and perceived greater differences among samples. No effect was found for expectancy. These findings are important because they suggest possible mechanisms for maximizing treatment effects in medical and psychological settings, where factors such as nonspecific treatment effects and placebo are believed to influence outcomes. Future research should seek to further clarify the relationship of expectancy and motivation to placebo outcomes by examining mediating factors such as attention and carefully manipulating both variables to ensure maximum effects. ItemSex Differences in Motivation to Self‐Administer Alcohol After 2 Weeks of Abstinence in Young‐Adult Heavy Drinkers(Wiley, 2018) Plawecki, Martin Henry; White, Kurt; Kosobud, Ann E. K.; Grahame, Nicholas; Zimmermann, Ulrich S.; Crabb, David; O'Connor, Sean; Psychiatry, School of MedicineBackground Studies in animal models document that forced abstinence from usual consumption of alcohol changes subsequent seeking and consumption, with increases or decreases depending on the species, duration of abstinence, number of deprivations, and sex. Human laboratory‐based alcohol deprivation studies are rare. Methods We conducted a 2‐session, within‐participant, randomized‐order comparison of intravenous, progressive ratio, alcohol self‐administration during 2.5 hours of progressive work for alcohol and/or vehicle; once while the participants pursued their usual drinking habits and once after 2 weeks of closely monitored, voluntary outpatient abstinence from alcohol. The schedule of work for rewards and the incremental increases in breath alcohol concentration following completion of an alcohol work‐set were identical across participants. Fifty young‐adult (27 men), heavy‐drinking participants completed both sessions. Our primary hypothesis was that motivation to work for alcohol after 2 weeks of abstinence would be greater in participants with a weekly binge pattern of drinking, compared to those who regularly drink heavily, and we intended to explore associations with biological family history of alcoholism and sex. Results We detected no change in work for alcohol associated with recent drinking history. However, females, on average, increased their work for alcohol upon resumption after 2 weeks of abstinence (mean ± SEM = +16.3 ± 9.6%), while males decreased that work (−24.8 ± 13.8%). The sex difference was substantial and significant (p < 0.03), with a medium effect size (Cohen's d = 0.63). Conclusions We believe a more comprehensive study of mechanisms underlying the sex differences in the human postabstinence response is warranted. ItemValidation of the Beck Motivation Inventory in a Schizophrenia Sample(Office of the Vice Chancellor for Research, 2014-04-11) Luther, Lauren; Grant, Paul M; McCole, Kerry; Beck, Aaron TObjectives: Low motivation is an obstacle to recovery for many individuals with schizophrenia, and assessing motivation remains challenging. The aim of this study was to examine the reliability and validity of a new measure of motivation, The Beck Motivation Inventory (BMI). The BMI is a 13-item measure created to assess self-reported behavior related to an individual’s ability to initiate and sustain task-related motivation, as opposed to relying on others to encourage task-related motivation. Methods: In a sample of 251 adult outpatients and inpatients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, the BMI was administered along with measures of social functioning and dependent and autonomy beliefs. A confirmatory factor analysis was conducted to test a two-factor model, which consisted of an inner- and other- directed motivation factor. The BMI’s internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and convergent and predictive validity were also assessed. Results: The BMI demonstrated acceptable internal consistency (α > .70) and adequate test-retest stability after six months (r > .5). Convergent validity was established with measures of dependent and autonomy beliefs, and predictive validity was demonstrated with a measure of social functioning. The two-factor model of the BMI was also supported. Conclusions: Results provide initial support for the validation of the BMI, suggesting that the BMI may be a useful and brief tool for evaluating behaviors linked to task-related motivation that may act as obstacles to recovery for individuals with schizophrenia. ItemVolunteer Motivations at the 2012 Super Bowl(Emerald, 2015) VanSickle, Jennifer L.; Pierce, David A.; Diacin, Michael; Department of Tourism, Conventions, and Event Management, School of Physical Education and Tourism ManagementPurpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine mega-event volunteers’ motivations and their impact on volunteer satisfaction. Additionally, this study investigated motivational differences between volunteers based upon four demographic variables: age, gender, educational level, and income. Design/methodology/approach – A modified version of the Volunteer Motivations Scale for International Sporting Events (Bang and Chelladurai, 2009) was administered to 8,000 Super Bowl volunteers via Survey Monkey with the permission of the Indiana Sports Corporation. In all, 24 percent (n=1,928) of the volunteers completed the survey. Exploratory factor analysis was used to reduce the survey questions into a smaller number factors. Multivariate analysis of variance was utilized to compare differences in the four demographic variables on the factors. Multiple regression was used to predict satisfaction on the basis of the four factors. Findings – Volunteers were motivated by four factors: Community Support, Love of Sports, Personal Growth, and Career Development. These four factors all significantly predicted satisfaction with the volunteer experience. The overall MANOVA was significant and revealed that ten of 16 group comparisons possessed significant differences. Females rated Community higher than males, while males rated Love of Sports higher than females. Older volunteers and those with higher household incomes were motivated more by Community Support, while younger volunteers and those with lower incomes were motivated by Career Development. Likewise, less educated volunteers placed a higher value on Career motivations than more educated volunteers who placed a high value on Personal Growth. Research limitations/implications – Dissatisfied volunteers may have chosen to not participate in the study. Follow-up interviews with dissatisfied volunteers might provide insight for event organizers that would shed light on factors that influence retention and recidivism. Practical implications – The findings of this study suggest that mega sport volunteer managers should recognize that motivational differences among volunteers do exist and utilize this information for creating recruitment materials targeted to specific groups. Then volunteers can be assigned to tasks that tap into their desire, thus enhancing potential volunteer satisfaction and their return as a volunteer at future events. Originality/value – This study was conducted in the context of America’s largest mega event in a city that hosted the event for the first time. In addition to collecting one of the largest number of responses for volunteers at mega-sporting events, the development of the Community Support factor was unique within the context of this study. The Community Support factor was rated as the most important by volunteers and tied to other questions such as wanting to help make the event a success, helping others, and creating a better society. This indicates that volunteers had pride in their community and wanted to help the event be successful by helping the city’s visitors.