Browsing by Subject "metacognition"
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ItemAdapting Writing Center Pedagogy for Composition Classrooms: A Metacognitive Approach(2012-05-04) Gellin, Laura M.; Fox, Stephen L.; Buchenot, Andre; Hogue, Teresa MolinderWhile a writing center tutor may view her role as a coach, a commentator, and a counselor, the tutor actually serves as scaffolding, a temporary, supportive replacement of the processes more experienced writers can manage alone without a tutor, namely, the metacognitive processes of self-assessing, self-monitoring, and self-motivating. Metacognition then becomes the essential factor in adapting writing center practices into the composition classroom. By re-conceptualizing the three roles of a writing center tutor and re-visioning the classroom into a more “pure” learning space, tutor-teachers improve students’ writing skills, increase their engagement, and redirect students’ focus toward the writing process rather than the grade. To demonstrate the efficacy of this adapted writing center approach in the composition classroom, I created an authentic, challenging project in which the pre-project activities, task design, work process, and reflection assignment enact my proposed theory. By adopting this approach, tutor-teachers ultimately empower students and design compositional tasks that act as a catalyst for transforming the way students understand themselves as writers and as students. ItemConscious brain, metacognition and schizophrenia(Elsevier, 2016-07) Bob, Petr; Pec, Ondrej; Mishara, Aaron L.; Touskova, Tereza; Lysaker, Paul H.; Department of Psychiatry, IU School of MedicineRecent findings indicate that the binding and synchronization of distributed neural activities are crucial for cognitive processes and consciousness. In addition, there is increasing evidence that disrupted feature binding is related to experiences of disintegration of consciousness in schizophrenia. These data suggest that the disrupted binding and disintegration of consciousness could be typically related to schizophrenia in terms of Bleuler's concept of “splitting”. In this context, deficits in metacognitive capacity in schizophrenia may be conceptualized as a spectrum from more discrete to more synthetic activities, related to specific levels of neural binding and neurocognitive deficits. This review summarizes the recent research on metacognition and its relationship to deficits of conscious awareness that may be found in schizophrenia patients. Deficits in synthetic metacognition are likely linked to the integration of information during specific processes of neural binding. Those in turn may be related to a range of mental activities including reasoning style, learning potential and insight. ItemContrasting metacognitive profiles and their association with negative symptoms in groups with schizophrenia, early psychosis and depression in a Russian sample(Elsevier, 2020-09) Lysaker, Paul H.; Chernov, Nikita; Moiseeva, Tatyana; Sozinova, Marta; Dmitryeva, Nadezhda; Alyoshin, Vitaliy; Faith, Laura A.; Karpenko, Olga; Kostyuk, Georgiy; Psychiatry, School of MedicineResearch has suggested that negative symptoms in psychotic disorders may be in part fueled by deficits in metacognition or the ability to form integrated ideas about oneself and others. One limitation of this work is that it has largely come from North America and Western Europe. To further the literature, we assessed symptoms using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and Metacognition using the Metacognitive Assessment Scale - Abbreviated in a sample of outpatients with prolonged schizophrenia (n = 41), early episode psychosis (n = 37) and major depression (n = 30) gathered in Moscow, Russia. Verbal memory was assessed for use as a potential covariate. ANOVA revealed the two groups with psychosis had significantly poorer metacognitive function in terms of self-reflectivity and awareness of the other, than the group with depression. In both psychosis groups negative symptoms were more robustly related to metacognition than other forms of symptoms after controlling for neurocognition. Results support the possibility that metacognitive deficits are a psychological factor which cross culturally contributes to negative symptoms and point to metacognition as a potentially important target for intervention. Item"Discovering" Writing With Struggling Students: Using Discovery Learning Pedagogy to Improve Writing Skills in Reluctant and Remedial Learners(2016-03) Bohney, Brandie Lee; Lovejoy, Kim B.; Fox, Steve; Brooks-Gillies, Marilee ElizabethFew writing teachers will disagree that teaching writing conventions in isolation is a fruitless, even harmful, pedagogy which does little, if anything, to improve student writing. Teaching conventions, style, and usage (often collectively referred to as grammar) in context, however, proves difficult when struggling secondary students develop good ideas and evidence but fail to clearly articulate them because of their lack of understanding of various writing conventions. The purpose of this study is to test the efficacy of a carefully designed discovery learning activity which intends to push students into metacognition about what they read, how it is structured, and how that structure affects the reader. Three sources of data were used to determine whether students who had learned by discovery were better able to avoid and revise run-on sentences than students who did not learn through discovery pedagogy. The data sources include two sets of essays, surveys taken by the students, and teacher analyses of essays for readability. The results of the data analysis indicate that use of run-on sentences, especially early in an essay, detrimentally affects the readability of student written work; discovery learning activities improve student understanding, application, and transfer of skill; and while students believe they understand more than their written work indicates, the results provide teachers direction for further instruction. The findings of this study indicate that use of discovery learning for writing instruction with struggling learners holds great promise: a group of students generally regarded as academically weak showed greater understanding and application of run-on sentence avoidance than slightly stronger students who learned without discovery methods. This indicates that discovery learning is a method that improves learning among reluctant secondary students, a population many teachers struggle to reach effectively. Discovery learning is not limited to conventions, though: the promise of its application potential extends into a variety of writing skills and concepts. In addition to the run-on sentence discovery activity studied here, discovery activities for various other skills—from semicolon use through creating characterization with dialogue—are included. ItemEASEL (Education through ApplicationSupported Experiential Learning)(Office of the Vice Chancellor for Research, 2016-04-08) Hall, Natalie K.; Rogers, Christian; Schnepp, Jerry; Whinery, Tiffany; Maillet, Matt; Smith, Vicky; Gokul, SriduttThe EASEL application is a learning tool which puts an emphasis on the student’s interaction with her/his learning environment and her/his reflection of that interaction. EASEL draws up on basic theories of constructivism and metacognition. Many learning tools provide an opportunity for students to reflect on her/his work a student may be asked to write a journal entry or take a postassignment survey based on an experiential learning event. However, this type of data is often collected long after the event resulting in the loss of important insights and opportunities for analysis. Utilizing the latest advances in mobile technology, EASEL will allow the student to reflection on her/his interactions in real time. The instructor will be able to assign default questions or design her/his own questions. Additionally, the instructor will be able to control when the reflection questions are administered: before, during, and/or after an event. A field study, for example, may require preexperience reflection and setup, experience data collection, and postexperience reflection. Depending on the instructor’s preference for the assignment, the reflection activity can be captured in text, audio, or video format. An instructor will be able to evaluate the reflective measures over time to understand the performance of the student as well as gauge the effectiveness of the assigned experiential learning techniques. ItemEvaluating the Acceptability and Usability of EASEL: A Mobile Application that Supports Guided Reflection for Experiential Learning Activities(Informing Science Institute, 2017-01-09) Schnepp, Jerry; Rogers, Christian; Engineering Technology, School of Engineering and TechnologyAim/Purpose: To examine the early perceptions (acceptability) and usability of EASEL (Education through Application-Supported Experiential Learning), a mobile platform that delivers reflection prompts and content before, during, and after an experiential learning activity. Background: Experiential learning is an active learning approach in which students learn by doing and by reflecting on the experience. This approach to teaching is often used in disciplines such as humanities, business, and medicine. Reflection before, during, and after an experience allows the student to analyze what... ItemEvaluating the Impact of Metacognitive Reflection and Insight Therapy on Social Functioning in Schizophrenia(2021-12) Mickens, Jessica L.; Minor, Kyle S.; Salyers, Michelle; Lysaker, PaulObjective: Social functioning encompasses interactions with people across situations of varying complexity. Given the frequency of observed social impairments in individuals with schizophrenia, there is a need to identify mechanisms that influence social functioning impairments. One proposed mechanism is metacognition, a mental process that enables the integration and interpretation of mental states and experiences. Impaired metacognition can inhibit one’s ability to engage and navigate through our social world. In individuals with schizophrenia, both social functioning and metacognitive deficits are profound. This study examined three hypotheses. Following Metacognitive Reflection and Insight Therapy (MERIT), (1) individuals will show improvements in social functioning; (2) individuals will show improvements in metacognitive abilities; and (3) improvements in social functioning will be associated with improved metacognitive abilities. Method: Using secondary data from a MERIT therapy feasibility study, data collected from the active condition groups (e.g., individuals with schizophrenia, n =16) at pre-and post-assessment were analyzed using paired samples t-tests for primary outcomes and hierarchical linear regressions to assess metacognition as an underlying mechanism of change. Results: Paired samples t-tests found no significant improvement in social functioning or metacognition. In contrast to the hypothesis, metacognitive abilities significantly declined. When subscales were examined, two subscales (self-reflectivity and awareness of others) significantly decreased. The post-hoc analysis found significant improvements in overall symptoms and disorganization. Lastly, metacognition did not significantly predict post-intervention social functioning. Conclusions: Measurement modality and the length of intervention may help explain the null findings observed in this study. The improvement in overall and disorganized symptoms could indicate that symptom reductions precede social functioning and metacognition changes. Given that the results from this trial were not aligned with previous studies, further research is needed to determine the effectiveness of MERIT on social functioning and metacognition in schizophrenia. ItemGreater Metacognition and Lower Fear of Negative Evaluation: Potential Factors Contributing to Improved Stigma Resistance among Individuals Diagnosed with Schizophrenia(2017-01) Firmin, Ruth L.; Luther, Lauren; Salyers, Michelle P.; Buck, Kelly D.; Lysaker, Paul H.; Psychology, School of ScienceStigma resistance, one's ability to block the internalization of stigma, appears to be a key domain of recovery. However, the conditions in which one is most likely to resist stigma have not been identified, and models of stigma resistance have yet to incorporate one's ability to consider the mind of others. The present study investigated the impact of the interaction between metacognition, or one's ability to form an integrated representation of oneself, others, and the world, and fear of negative evaluation on one's ability to resist stigma.Narratives of encounters with stigma shared by 41 persons with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders were first coded for spontaneous expressions of fear of negative evaluation from others. Two-step cluster analyses were then conducted in order to test the hypothesis that metacognition and fearing negative evaluation from others are important, interacting pathways which contribute to resisting stigma.Those with high (n = 11; 26.8%), intermediate (n = 9; 22.0%), and low metacognition (n = 21; 51.2%) significantly differed on stigma resistance (F = 9.49, p<0.001) and the high metacognition group was most likely to resist stigma. Those with high and low metacognition did not express fear of negative evaluation, while those with intermediate metacognition did express fear of negative evaluation. ItemAn Investigation of the Metacognitive Awareness of Postbaccalaureate Premedical Students at Indiana University School of Medicine(2021-04-22) Craven, Da'Quan D.; Byram, Jessica N.BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Medical school curriculum is tasked with producing lifelong self-directed learners, a set of characteristics requiring strong metacognitive skills. Metacognitive skills directly impact students’ metacognition, which is their ability to understand and regulate their own thinking and learning. It may then be postulated that metacognition may be key in distinguishing students that require a postbaccalaureate program from those that do not. Metacognition has two critical domains: metacognitive knowledge and metacognitive regulation, each of which contain multiple subprocesses. Metacognitive knowledge includes knowing strategies for learning, when to use those strategies, and knowing oneself as a learner. Metacognitive regulation includes strategies for planning, monitoring, evaluating, and debugging learning strategies. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to investigate: 1) the impact of a graduate TBL course on students’ metacognitive awareness, and 2) the relationship between metacognition and course performance. Methods Students enrolled in a TBL graduate histology course at Indiana University took part in this study. Students completed a 19-item Metacognitive Awareness Inventory (MAI) at the beginning (MAI1) and end of the semester (MAI2). The MAI has two domains, Knowledge (8 items) and Regulation (11 items), where items are rated on a 5-point scale from “not at all typical of me” to “very typical of me.” Free response questions asked about knowledge and study abilities, plans for studying in histology and how study skills and abilities have improved across the semester. Finally, students completed a voluntary reflection about their examination performance after the first unit exam. Differences between MAIs were investigated using a Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Spearman's correlations explored the relationship between MAI and final course grades. MAI free responses and exam reflection were analyzed using thematic analysis. Responses were coded using a conceptual framework of metacognition based on processes of knowledge and regulation. Results Thirty-one (94%) students completed both MAIs. There were no differences between MAI1 and MAI2 scores and there was no relationship between MAI1 or MAI2 and final course grades. The Wilcoxon test demonstrated a significant difference between the Knowledge and Regulation domains for MAI1 (p=0.002) and MAI2 (p=0.001) where students reported the items in the Knowledge domain were more typical of them than items in the Regulation domain. There were no differences across the domains between the two timepoints. Students reported initial hesitation and difficulty with learning histology content in a lecture-free, flipped classroom approach. Students discussed plans for approaching studying, but many reported modifying study strategies throughout the semester. However, few students discussed active learning strategies that would allow them to evaluate and assess their knowledge prior to assessments. Conclusion While the MAI failed to demonstrate any improvement in metacognition, students reported an increase in their ability to adapt their study strategies to the content and learning materials. Differences in knowledge of cognition and regulation suggests educators in TBL classrooms may need to provide students with additional resources and strategies to regulate their learning. Future studies aim to investigate the validity of the MAI for measuring metacognition in anatomy courses. ItemMetacognition in schizophrenia disorders: Comparisons with community controls and bipolar disorder: Replication with a Spanish language Chilean sample(Elsevier, 2018-09) Lysaker, Paul H.; Irarrázaval, Leonor; Gagen, Emily C.; Armijo, Ivan; Ballerini, Massimo; Mancini, Milena; Stanghellini, Giovanni; Psychiatry, School of MedicineMetacognition refers to the activities which allow for the availability of a sense of oneself and others in the moment. Research mostly in North America with English-speaking samples has suggested that metacognitive deficits are present in schizophrenia and are closely tied to negative symptoms. Thus, replication is needed in other cultures and groups. The present study accordingly sought to replicate these findings in a Spanish speaking sample from Chile. Metacognition and symptoms were assessed among 26 patients with schizophrenia, 26 with bipolar disorder and 36 community members without serious mental illness. ANCOVA controlling for age and education revealed that the schizophrenia group had greater levels of metacognitive deficits than the bipolar disorder and community control groups. Differences in metacognition between the clinical groups persisted after controlling for symptom levels. Spearman correlations revealed a unique pattern of associations of metacognition with negative and cognitive symptoms. Results largely support previous findings and provide added evidence of the metacognitive deficits present in schizophrenia and the link to outcome cross culturally. Implications for developing metacognitively oriented interventions are discussed.