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Item16 Years of Charitable Giving Research(2019-12-12) Osili, Una; Clark, Chelsea; Han, XiaoThe underlying data for this research brief is drawn from the Indiana University Lilly Family School of Philanthropy’s Philanthropy Panel Study (PPS)—a signature research project of the school. The PPS, formerly known as the Center on Philanthropy Panel Study (COPPS), follows the same families’ philanthropic behaviors throughout their lives. The study provides nonprofit sector professionals, fundraisers, policymakers and public officials a unique perspective of household giving and volunteering behaviors over time. ItemThe 2016 U.S. Trust ® Study of High Net Worth Philanthropy(2016-10-25) Osili, Una; Clark, Chelsea; St. Claire, Mallory; Bergdoll, JonathanThe 2016 U.S. Trust® Study of High Net Worth Philanthropy reveals consistent trends in the giving and volunteering behaviors of high net worth individuals and households from previous years, as well as departures from past trends. Most (91.0 percent) high net worth households gave to charity in 2015, and nearly half (49.7 percent) of high net worth individuals volunteered their time. On average, high net worth households gave $25,509 to charity in 2015. By comparison, households in the general population gave $2,124 in 2015. ItemThe 2021 Bank of America Study of Philanthropy: Charitable Giving by Affluent Households(2021-09-29) Osili, Una; Clark, Chelsea; Bergdoll, JonThe 2021 Bank of America Study of Philanthropy: Charitable Giving by Affluent Households reveals trends in the giving and volunteering behaviors of affluent individuals and households consistent with previous years, as well as some departures from past trends. The vast majority (88.1 percent) of affluent households gave to charity in 2020, and nearly a third (30.4 percent) of affluent individuals volunteered their time (down significantly from 47.8 percent in 2017), despite the COVID-19 global pandemic. On average, affluent donor households gave $43,195 to charity in 2020. By comparison, donor households in the general population gave $2,581. ItemAmerican Behavioral Scientist Special Issue: The Science and Imagination of Living Generously(Sage, 2019-12) Herzog, Patricia Snell; Clark, Chelsea Jacqueline; Osili, Una O.; Lilly Family School of PhilanthropyThis special issue addresses the science and imagination of living generously. Generosity is investigated from multiple disciplinary approaches, across the seven articles included in the issue. The first article engages an economic approach to address heterogeneity and generosity for adult Americans, analyzing charitable giving before and after the great recession of 2008. The second article engages a psychological approach to investigate later life-course generosity by studying mortality salience – concerns over the end of life – and age effects on charitable donations. The third article engages sociological and management approaches to study how social science data impacts generosity, by investigating an interaction with data analytics during the life-course stages of emerging and young adulthood. The fourth article engages a psychological approach to examine earlier life-course dynamics, by studying whether and under what conditions children exhibit generosity of affection towards religious out-groups. The fifth article engages a psychological approach to investigate generosity, religion, and moral foundations for adults. The sixth article engages an economics approach to probe millennial generosity, challenging popular notions of greater selfishness in younger generations. The seventh article engages an educational approach to theorize connections between global and local ecological generosity in children’s stories, finding that creating stories together can be a tool to foster intergenerational transmission of care for the environment. Cumulatively, these seven article contribute new knowledge on generosity throughout complex and important life-course dynamics. ItemChanges to the Giving Landscape(2019-10-22) Clark, Chelsea; Han, Xiao; Osili, UnaThis report presents a detailed analysis of shifts in American household giving from the year 2000 to 2016, which includes information about giving behaviors from before (2000-2008) and after (2010-2016) the Great Recession (which occurred from December 2007-June 2009). Understanding changes in how American households are giving can provide useful insights for donors, leaders, and policy makers. ItemCharitable Giving and Tax Incentives(2019-06-03) Osili, Una; Rooney, Patrick; Zarins, SashaOver $400 billion were donated to nonprofits in 2017, a record high. However, despite the increases in charitable dollars, the share of households that donate has been declining: in 2000, 67 percent of American households donated to nonprofits, but in 2014, only 56 percent of American households donated. This trend in decreasing donors pre-dates the passage of the 2017 Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (TCJA), but could be accelerated by the recent policy changes. TCJA significantly changed federal tax policy and these changes are expected to affect charitable giving [3-5]. Nonprofit leaders, as well as policymakers, have been exploring additional policy proposals to offset the potential negative impact on charitable giving. ItemCharitable Giving Around the 2016 Election: Does Gender Matter?(2018-10-09) Osili, Una; Mesch, Debra; Ackerman, Jacqueline; Pactor, Andrea; Bergdoll, JonathanThis study aims to provide insights on donations during the unique time period around the 2016 U.S. presidential election, using gift data from an online donation platform. Did giving to charitable organizations increase after the election? What causes benefited from post-election philanthropy? This study also seeks to understand whether there were gender differences in giving around the 2016 U.S. presidential election. ItemCharitable Giving in Nonprofit Service Associations: Identities, Incentives, and Gender Differences(Sage, 2017) Qu, Heng; Steinberg, Richard; Economics, School of Liberal ArtsNonprofit service associations, such as the Lions Clubs, Rotaries, and Kiwanis, provide collective goods. Membership in a service association involves two essential elements: members’ shared interest in the club’s charitable service and private benefits stemming from social interactions with other members, such as networking, fellowship, and fun. We report results from a laboratory experiment designed to test the effect of membership and priming on charitable giving. The two experimental conditions activate chains of associative memory linked to the service or socializing aspects of membership. We find that female subjects give significantly smaller donations after receiving the socializing stimulus. Male subjects are less sensitive to our experimental conditions, giving slightly more in the socializing condition, but the differences are not statistically significant. We discuss three mechanisms that may explain our results: social identity theory, reputation and image motivations, and quality inference. ItemEmpathy and its implications for prosocial behavior and engagement with the arts(2018-02-12) Kou, Xiaonan; Konrath, Sara; King, David; Ottoni-Wilhelm, Mark; Beckman, Emily; Davis, MarkThis dissertation contains three essays examining empathy and its implications for prosocial behavior and arts engagement. Empathy here refers to both compassion and concern for others (emotional empathy) and the understanding of the feelings and needs of others (cognitive empathy). Empathy is fundamental to our social life, and this dissertation explores its implications for two essential components of social life: prosocial behavior and arts engagement. Chapter 2 examines how three dimensions of the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI; Davis, 1983)—empathic concern, perspective taking, and personal distress—are associated with charitable giving, and whether these associations vary across charitable causes. Using data from a nationally representative sample of American adults, the study confirms that the three IRI dimensions are associated with charitable giving in different ways. Chapter 3 focuses on the interplay of trait empathy and people’s tendencies to diversify (spread out) their prosocial behavior. By analyzing data from two samples of American adults, this study reveals that people with higher empathic concern (emotional empathy) versus higher perspective taking (cognitive empathy) have distinct patterns in how they spread out their monetary gifts, but trait empathy is not associated with the distribution of time spent in helping others. ItemThe Giving Environment: Understanding Pre-Pandemic Trends in Charitable Giving(2021-07-27) Osili, Una; Zarins, Sasha; Han, XiaoCharitable giving reached an all-time high in 2020 with Americans donating $471 billion. This includes an adjustment of over $4 billion for COVID-19 relief and racial justice giving on top of what would normally be expected for those types of causes in 2020. However, in order to better understand these trends, we need to better understand the landscape of philanthropy before the onset of the pandemic and the increased awareness of social and racial justice issues.