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Browsing by Subject "Hyponatremia"
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ItemGuillain-Barre syndrome with concurrent posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome and hyponatraemia: mere coincidence or rare coexistence(BMJ, 2019-07-11) Drye, Carley; Bose, Subhasish; Pathireddy, Samata; Aeddula, Narothama Reddy; Medicine, School of MedicineA 61-year-old Caucasian woman with a history of hypertension presented with a week's history of confusion falls and back pain was found to have hyponatraemia from secretion of antidiuretic hormone and treated appropriately. Given her persistent symptoms, despite a normal CT head on presentation, an MRI head was obtained, showing vasogenic oedema in line with posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES). Despite aggressive antihypertensives and supportive measures, unfortunately, her condition deteriorated, with increased confusion, new left-sided flaccid paresis, paraesthesias and worsening of the back pain. Following further testing including a cerebrospinal fluid analysis, finally diagnosed with an atypical presentation of Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS), and prompt management with intravenous immunoglobulins was initiated. She recovered clinically and returned to near-normal function on follow-up. We use this case to suggest the importance of dysautonomia in GBS and various clinical manifestations it can present with, including PRES and hyponatraemia. ItemHIV Induced Disorders of Electrolyte Balance(Association of Kenya Physicians, 2007) Abdullah, Mohamed S.; Association of Kenya Physicians Scientific Conference (11th : Mar. 2007 : Eldoret, Kenya)Hyponatremia usually results from retention of water due to impairment of free water excretion or sodium loss exceeding that of water loss e.g thiazide-induced hyponatremia, or from multiple factors, as is seen in HIV/AIDS. ItemPrognostic Impact of Peritransplant Serum Sodium Concentrations in Liver Transplantation(International Scientific Information, 2019-07-16) Mihaylov, Plamen; Nagai, Shunji; Ekser, Burcin; Mangus, Richard; Fridell, Jonathan; Kubal, Chandrashekhar; Surgery, School of MedicineBACKGROUND Serum sodium (Na) is considered to reflect the severity of liver cirrhosis. In the last few years, much effort has been made to integrate this association into prognostic models after liver transplantation. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between peritransplant Na and neurological complications, as well as short-term survival, after liver transplantation. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 306 liver transplantations between 2012 and 2015 were evaluated. Pre- and posttransplant sodium concentrations were investigated with regard to 3-month survival and incidence of posttransplant neurological complications, along with other factors present in the operative side of the recipient and donor. RESULTS The 3-month survival rate was 94%. Neither hyponatremia (<130 mEq/L) nor hypernatremia (>145 mEq/L) at pretransplantion predicted 3-month survival. A large amount of intraoperative blood transfusion and a large delta Na showed a significant association with poor outcomes at 3 months. On multivariate analysis, the requirement of blood transfusion and warm ischemia time remained independent prognostic factors for 3-month mortality. Hyponatremia and a large delta Na tended to lead to the frequent development of neurological complications. These complications, secondary to rapid Na correction, were concerning and potentially led to a prolonged hospital stay and early mortality. CONCLUSIONS Rapid change in the sodium level might be caused by large amounts of blood transfusion products. This leads to a diminished short-term survival, as well as a higher rate of neurological complications.