Browsing by Subject "Homelessness"
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ItemAddressing Homelessness in Marion County: Policy Considerations and Recommendations(Center for Research on Inclusion and Social Policy, 2022-08-16) Bow, Brendan; Lawrence, Roxy; Eckert, MarissaIn July of 2022, the Center for Research on Inclusion and Social Policy—in collaboration with the Coalition for Homelessness Intervention and Prevention—released a brief describing the findings of the 2022 Marion County Point-in-Time (PIT) Count. In this follow-up report, researchers compared Indianapolis to four similar cities—Charlotte, North Carolina; Columbus, Ohio; Fort Worth, Texas; and Nashville, Tennessee—to examine homeless populations. This report also examines factors affecting homelessness in Marion County. Those include a dwindling housing/rental market combined with rising housing/rental costs, specific laws and ordinances that criminalize homelessness, recent increases in youth homelessness, and a lack of facilities and support systems to house and help those experiencing homelessness. ItemCauses of Child and Youth Homelessness in Developed and Developing Countries: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis(American Medical Association, 2016-05-01) Embleton, Lonnie; Lee, Hana; Gunn, Jayleen; Ayuku, David; Braitstein, Paula; Department of Medicine, IU School of MedicineIMPORTANCE: A systematic compilation of children and youth's reported reasons for street involvement is lacking. Without empirical data on these reasons, the policies developed or implemented to mitigate street involvement are not responsive to the needs of these children and youth. OBJECTIVE: To systematically analyze the self-reported reasons why children and youth around the world become street-involved and to analyze the available data by level of human development, geographic region, and sex. DATA SOURCES: Electronic searches of Scopus, PsychINFO, EMBASE, POPLINE, PubMed, ERIC, and the Social Sciences Citation Index were conducted from January 1, 1990, to the third week of July 2013. We searched the peer-reviewed literature for studies that reported quantitative reasons for street involvement. The following broad search strategy was used to search the databases: "street children" OR "street youth" OR "homeless youth" OR "homeless children" OR "runaway children" OR "runaway youth" or "homeless persons." STUDY SELECTION: Studies were included if they met the following inclusion criteria: (1) participants were 24 years of age or younger, (2) participants met our definition of street-connected children and youth, and (3) the quantitative reasons for street involvement were reported. We reviewed 318 full texts and identified 49 eligible studies. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS: Data were extracted by 2 independent reviewers. We fit logistic mixed-effects models to estimate the pooled prevalence of each reason and to estimate subgroup pooled prevalence by development level or geographic region. The meta-analysis was conducted from February to August 2015. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: We created the following categories based on the reported reasons in the literature: poverty, abuse, family conflict, delinquency, psychosocial health, and other. RESULTS: In total, there were 13 559 participants from 24 countries, of which 21 represented developing countries. The most commonly reported reason for street involvement was poverty, with a pooled-prevalence estimate of 39% (95% CI, 29%-51%). Forty-seven studies included in this review reported family conflict as the reason for street involvement, with a pooled prevalence of 32% (95% CI, 26%-39%). Abuse was equally reported in developing and developed countries as the reason for street involvement, with a pooled prevalence of 26% (95% CI, 18%-35%). Delinquency was the least frequently cited reason overall, with a pooled prevalence of 10% (95% CI, 5%-20%). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: The street-connected children and youth who provided reasons for their street involvement infrequently identified delinquent behaviors for their circumstances and highlighted the role of poverty as a driving factor. They require support and protection, and governments globally are called on to reduce the socioeconomic inequities that cause children and youth to turn to the streets in the first place, in all regions of the world. ItemDevelopment and testing of an implementation strategy for a complex housing intervention: protocol for a mixed methods study(BioMed Central, 2014) Watson, Dennis P.; Young, Jeani; Ahonen, Emily Q.; Xu, Huiping; Henderson, Macey; Shuman, Valery; Tolliver, Randi; Department of Health Policy and Management, Richard M. Fairbanks School of Public HealthBackground: There is currently a lack of scientifically designed and tested implementation strategies. Such strategies are particularly important for highly complex interventions that require coordination between multiple parts to be successful. This paper presents a protocol for the development and testing of an implementation strategy for a complex intervention known as the Housing First model (HFM). Housing First is an evidence-based practice for chronically homeless individuals demonstrated to significantly improve a number of outcomes. Methods/design: Drawing on practices demonstrated to be useful in implementation and e-learning theory, our team is currently adapting a face-to-face implementation strategy so that it can be delivered over a distance. Research activities will be divided between Chicago and Central Indiana, two areas with significantly different barriers to HFM implementation. Ten housing providers (five from Chicago and five from Indiana) will be recruited to conduct an alpha test of each of four e-learning modules as they are developed. Providers will be requested to keep a detailed log of their experience completing the modules and participate in one of two focus groups. After refining the modules based on alpha test results, we will test the strategy among a sample of four housing organizations (two from Chicago and two from Indiana). We will collect and analyze both qualitative and quantitative data from administration and staff. Measures of interest include causal factors affecting implementation, training outcomes, and implementation outcomes. Discussion: This project is an important first step in the development of an evidence-based implementation strategy to increase scalability and impact of the HFM. The project also has strong potential to increase limited scientific knowledge regarding implementation strategies in general. ItemHomeless in Indianapolis: Characteristics of the Sheltered and Long-Term Homeless(2014-02-25) Barnes, Brian David; Haas, Ain E.; Foote, Carrie E.; Wright, Eric R.Virtually every society can, at some point, be affected by homelessness. In recent years in the United States, homeless rates have hovered around three percent of the entire population. Although this marginalized population has been studied before, little is known regarding the possible characteristics that can keep an individual in homelessness or affect their living conditions while being homeless. This thesis provides an in-depth look at specific characteristics that could be factors in the length of the homeless experience, as well as how these same characteristics could impact the shelter status while an individual is homeless. The study reveals that homelessness in Indianapolis was mostly experienced by those who were male, African-American, and between the ages of 31-50. Furthermore, the majority were found to live in shelters and be homeless for twelve months or less. ItemHomelessness in Indianapolis: 2020 Marion County Point-in-Time Count(Center for Research on Inclusion and Social Policy at IU, 2020-08) Stringham-Marquis, Kelsie; Bow, Brendan; Lucas, Bailee; Purcell, JacobIn partnership with Coalition for Homelessness Intervention and Prevention (CHIP) and other local organizations, CRISP helped to coordinate and conduct the annual PIT count in Marion County. The report documents the number of individuals experiencing homelessness on a single night in January 2020. The report also highlights key findings and takeaways in order to inform policymaking and service provision for individuals experiencing homelessness. ItemHomelessness in Indianapolis: 2021 Marion County Point-in-Time Count(Center for Research on Inclusion & Social Policy, 2021-07) Stringham-Marquis, Kelsie; Bowling, ElizabethFor more than a decade, PPI and the Coalition for Homelessness Intervention and Prevention have collaborated with local organizations to conduct Marion County’s annual Point-in-Time (PIT) Count. As mandated by the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, the PIT Count reports the number of people experiencing homelessness on a single night in January. The policy brief highlights key findings and takeaways from the 2021 PIT Count to inform policy decisions and service provision. ItemHomelessness in Indianapolis: 2022 Marion County Point-in-Time Count(Center for Research on Inclusion & Social Policy, 2022-07-21) Bow, Brendan; Beebe, Gwen; Arun, Nidhi; Cope, Jacquelynn; Lawrence, Roxy; Camacho-Reyes, Karla; Gibson, Amy; Eckert, MarissaFor more than a decade, the IU Public Policy Institute (PPI) and the Coalition for Homelessness Intervention and Prevention (CHIP) have collaborated with local organizations to conduct Marion County’s annual Point-in-Time (PIT) Count. As mandated by the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), the PIT Count reports the number of people experiencing homelessness on a single night in January. This report highlights key findings and takeaways from the PIT Count to inform policy decisions and service provision. ItemHow Public Libraries Respond to Crises Involving Patrons Experiencing Homelessness: Multiple Perspectives of the Role of the Public Library Social Worker(2023-05) Provence, Mary Anita; Starnino, Vincent; Adamek, Margaret; Copeland, Andrea; Kyere, Eric; Wahler, ElizabethDue to a shortage of affordable housing, gaps in social welfare infrastructure, and the criminalization of homelessness, public libraries find themselves providing daytime shelter to patrons experiencing homelessness. Their needs and crises have created demands on staff and security that exceed their training and role. Sometimes police are involved, exposing patrons to possible arrest. To fill this knowledge and service gap, libraries have begun hiring social workers. Early research on the broad role of social workers suggests they are changing how libraries respond to crises with patrons experiencing homelessness in four keyways: by providing an option to calling 911; influencing code of conduct implementation, serving patrons, and equipping staff. However, no study has given an in-depth explanation of how social workers are changing libraries’ responses to crises with patrons experiencing homelessness. The purpose of this study is to explain how the role of the social worker influences how libraries respond when patrons experiencing homelessness are in crises. Considered through lenses of role theory, social cognitive theory, and the humanization framework, this embedded multiple-case study of three U.S. urban libraries collected 91 surveys and conducted 46 Zoom interviews. It includes the perspectives of 107 participants across six roles: patrons experiencing homelessness, social workers, front-facing staff, security, location managers, and CEOs. The social workers’ influence was perceived to reduce behavior incidents, exclusions, and arrests around three themes: (1) being an option, with subthemes of in-house referrals and de-escalation; (2) running interference, with subthemes of low barrier access and barrier-busting services; and (3) buffering, with subthemes of equipping, influencing code of conduct implementation, and advocating and being present during security and police interactions. Three models of library social work and their impact on the social worker’s role of de-escalation were identified and described: The Sign Up and Summon Model, the Outreach and Summon Model, and the Social Work Center Model. In addition, a commingled rival was found: the impact of the Black Lives Matter movement. The implications of the findings include recommendations for structuring library social work practice to reduce exclusions and arrests of patrons experiencing homelessness. ItemMultipronged Approach to Controlling a Tuberculosis Outbreak Among Persons Experiencing Homelessness(Wolters Kluwer, 2022) Muloma, Eva; Stewart, Rebekah; Townsend, Helen; Koch, Sarah; Burkholder, Sarah; Railey, Shanica; White, Kelly; Redington-Noble, Rachel; Caine, Virginia; Medicine, School of MedicineIn May 2009, the Marion County Public Health Department in Indiana declared a tuberculosis (TB) outbreak among persons experiencing homelessness in Marion County, began active case finding to detect additional cases, and formed a TB outbreak response team to plan and coordinate outbreak activities. Outbreak-associated cases had 1 of 2 outbreak genotypes and either reported experiencing homelessness themselves or had an epidemiologic link to a shelter or a person experiencing homelessness. The last of 53 outbreak-associated cases was detected in 2019 after more than 2 years without a case. The Marion County Public Health Department continues to address TB-related issues and implement prevention measures at homeless shelters and among persons experiencing homelessness in 2019. This example, in addition to other published guidance, can be used by jurisdictions to plan and implement their own TB outbreak prevention and response activities among persons experiencing homelessness.