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Browsing by Subject "Epigenesis, Genetic"
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ItemEarly-life events may trigger biochemical pathways for Alzheimer's disease: the "LEARn" model(Springer-Verlag, 2008-12) Lahiri, Debomoy K.; Zawia, Nasser H.; Greig, Nigel H.; Sambamurti, Kumar; Maloney, Bryan; Department of Psychiatry, IU School of MedicineAlzheimer's disease (AD), the most common form of dementia among the elderly, manifests mostly late in adult life. However, it is presently unclear when the disease process starts and how long the pathobiochemical processes take to develop. Our goal is to address the timing and nature of triggers that lead to AD. To explain the etiology of AD, we have recently proposed a "Latent Early-life Associated Regulation" (LEARn) model, which postulates a latent expression of specific genes triggered at the developmental stage. This model integrates both the neuropathological features (e.g., amyloid-loaded plaques and tau-laden tangles) and environmental factors (e.g., diet, metal exposure, and hormones) associated with the disease. Environmental agents perturb gene regulation in a long-term fashion, beginning at early developmental stages, but these perturbations do not have pathological results until significantly later in life. The LEARn model operates through the regulatory region (promoter) of the gene and by affecting the methylation status within the promoter of specific genes. ItemEpigenetic contribution of the myosin light chain kinase gene to the risk for acute respiratory distress syndrome(Elsevier, 2017-02) Szilágyi, Keely L.; Liu, Cong; Zhang, Xu; Wang, Ting; Fortman, Jeffrey D.; Zhang, Wei; Garcia, Joe G.N.; Medicine, School of MedicineAcute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a devastating clinical syndrome with a considerable case fatality rate (∼30%-40%). Health disparities exist with African descent (AD) subjects exhibiting greater mortality than European descent (ED) individuals. Myosin light chain kinase is encoded by MYLK, whose genetic variants are implicated in ARDS pathogenesis and may influence ARDS mortality. As baseline population-specific epigenetic changes, that is, cytosine modifications, have been observed between AD and ED individuals, epigenetic variations in MYLK may provide insights into ARDS disparities. We compared methylation levels of MYLK cytosine-guanine dinucleotides (CpGs) between ARDS patients and intensive care unit (ICU) controls overall and by ethnicity in a nested case-control study of 39 ARDS cases and 75 non-ARDS ICU controls. Two MYLK CpG sites (cg03892735 and cg23344121) were differentially modified between ARDS subjects and controls (P < 0.05; q < 0.25) in a logistic regression model, where no effect modification by ethnicity or age was found. One CpG site was associated with ARDS in patients aged <58 years, cg19611163 (intron 19, 20). Two CpG sites were associated with ARDS in EDs only, gene body CpG (cg01894985, intron 2, 3) and CpG (cg16212219, intron 31, 32), with higher modification levels exhibited in ARDS subjects than controls. Cis-acting modified cytosine quantitative trait loci (mQTL) were identified using linear regression between local genetic variants and modification levels for 2 ARDS-associated CpGs (cg23344121 and cg16212219). In summary, these ARDS-associated MYLK CpGs with effect modification by ethnicity and local mQTL suggest that MYLK epigenetic variation and local genetic background may contribute to health disparities observed in ARDS. ItemEpigenetic Regulation of Placenta-Specific 8 Contributes to Altered Function of Endothelial Colony-Forming Cells Exposed to Intrauterine Gestational Diabetes Mellitus(American Diabetes Association, 2015-07) Blue, Emily K.; Sheehan, BreAnn M.; Nuss, Zia V.; Boyle, Frances A.; Hocutt, Caleb M.; Gohn, Cassandra R.; Varberg, Kaela M.; McClintick, Jeanette N.; Haneline, Laura S.; Department of Pediatrics, IU School of MedicineIntrauterine exposure to gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is linked to development of hypertension, obesity, and type 2 diabetes in children. Our previous studies determined that endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) from neonates exposed to GDM exhibit impaired function. The current goals were to identify aberrantly expressed genes that contribute to impaired function of GDM-exposed ECFCs and to evaluate for evidence of altered epigenetic regulation of gene expression. Genome-wide mRNA expression analysis was conducted on ECFCs from control and GDM pregnancies. Candidate genes were validated by quantitative RT-PCR and Western blotting. Bisulfite sequencing evaluated DNA methylation of placenta-specific 8 (PLAC8). Proliferation and senescence assays of ECFCs transfected with siRNA to knockdown PLAC8 were performed to determine functional impact. Thirty-eight genes were differentially expressed between control and GDM-exposed ECFCs. PLAC8 was highly expressed in GDM-exposed ECFCs, and PLAC8 expression correlated with maternal hyperglycemia. Methylation status of 17 CpG sites in PLAC8 negatively correlated with mRNA expression. Knockdown of PLAC8 in GDM-exposed ECFCs improved proliferation and senescence defects. This study provides strong evidence in neonatal endothelial progenitor cells that GDM exposure in utero leads to altered gene expression and DNA methylation, suggesting the possibility of altered epigenetic regulation. ItemEpigenetic targeting of ovarian cancer stem cells(American Association for Cancer Research, 2014-09-01) Wang, Yinu; Cardenas, Horacio; Fang, Fang; Condello, Salvatore; Taverna, Pietro; Segar, Matthew; Liu, Yunlong; Nephew, Kenneth P.; Matei, Daniela; Department of Medicine, IU School of MedicineEmerging results indicate that cancer stem-like cells contribute to chemoresistance and poor clinical outcomes in many cancers, including ovarian cancer. As epigenetic regulators play a major role in the control of normal stem cell differentiation, epigenetics may offer a useful arena to develop strategies to target cancer stem-like cells. Epigenetic aberrations, especially DNA methylation, silence tumor-suppressor and differentiation-associated genes that regulate the survival of ovarian cancer stem-like cells (OCSC). In this study, we tested the hypothesis that DNA-hypomethylating agents may be able to reset OCSC toward a differentiated phenotype by evaluating the effects of the new DNA methytransferase inhibitor SGI-110 on OCSC phenotype, as defined by expression of the cancer stem-like marker aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH). We demonstrated that ALDH(+) ovarian cancer cells possess multiple stem cell characteristics, were highly chemoresistant, and were enriched in xenografts residual after platinum therapy. Low-dose SGI-110 reduced the stem-like properties of ALDH(+) cells, including their tumor-initiating capacity, resensitized these OCSCs to platinum, and induced reexpression of differentiation-associated genes. Maintenance treatment with SGI-110 after carboplatin inhibited OCSC growth, causing global tumor hypomethylation and decreased tumor progression. Our work offers preclinical evidence that epigenome-targeting strategies have the potential to delay tumor progression by reprogramming residual cancer stem-like cells. Furthermore, the results suggest that SGI-110 might be administered in combination with platinum to prevent the development of recurrent and chemoresistant ovarian cancer. ItemHypoxia promotes stem cell phenotypes and poor prognosis through epigenetic regulation of DICER(Nature Publishing Group, 2014-10-29) van den Beucken, Twan; Koch, Elizabeth; Chu, Kenneth; Rupaimoole, Rajesha; Prickaerts, Peggy; Adriaens, Michiel; Voncken, Jan Willem; Harris, Adrian L.; Buffa, Francesca M.; Haider, Syed; Starmans, Maud H. W.; Yao, Cindy Q.; Ivan, Mircea; Ivan, Cristina; Pecot, Chad V.; Boutros, Paul C.; Sood, Anil K.; Koritzinsky, Marianne; Wouters, Bradly G.; Department of Medicine, IU School of MedicineMicroRNAs are small regulatory RNAs that post-transcriptionally control gene expression. Reduced expression of DICER, the enzyme involved in microRNA processing, is frequently observed in cancer and is associated with poor clinical outcome in various malignancies. Yet the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Here, we identify tumor hypoxia as a regulator of DICER expression in large cohorts of breast cancer patients. We show that DICER expression is suppressed by hypoxia through an epigenetic mechanism that involves inhibition of oxygen-dependent H3K27me3 demethylases KDM6A/B and results in silencing of the DICER promoter. Subsequently, reduced miRNA processing leads to derepression of the miR-200 target ZEB1, stimulates the epithelial to mesenchymal transition and ultimately results in the acquisition of stem cell phenotypes in human mammary epithelial cells. Our study uncovers a previously unknown relationship between oxygen-sensitive epigenetic regulators, miRNA biogenesis and tumor stem cell phenotypes that may underlie poor outcome in breast cancer. ItemInhibiting HDAC for human hematopoietic stem cell expansion(American Society for Clinical Investigation, 2014-06) Broxmeyer, Hal E.; Department of Microbiology and Immunology, IU School of MedicineIn this issue of the JCI, Chaurasia and colleagues report an impressive ex vivo expansion of HSCs from human cord blood (CB) using cytokines and altering epigenetic modifications. The application of this protocol provides information that has potential for clinical consideration. The enhanced expansion of CB HSCs is a substantial advance over recent work from the Chaurasia and Hoffman group, in which ex vivo production of human erythroid progenitor cells from CB was promoted by chromatin modification. Moreover, this study takes advantage of information from the rapidly emerging, but not yet fully elucidated, field of epigenetics. ItemA mathematical model of bimodal epigenetic control of miR-193a in ovarian cancer stem cells(PLoS, 2014-12-29) Cheng, Frank H.C.; Aguda, Baltazar; Tsai, Je-Chiang; Kochanczyk, Marek; Lin, Jora M.J.; Chen, Gary C.W.; Lai, Hung-Cheng; Nephew, Kenneth P.; Hwang, Tzy-Wei; Chan, Michael W.Y.; Department of Cellular and Integrative Physiology, IU School of MedicineAccumulating data indicate that cancer stem cells contribute to tumor chemoresistance and their persistence alters clinical outcome. Our previous study has shown that ovarian cancer may be initiated by ovarian cancer initiating cells (OCIC) characterized by surface antigen CD44 and c-KIT (CD117). It has been experimentally demonstrated that a microRNA, namely miR-193a, targets c-KIT mRNA for degradation and could play a crucial role in ovarian cancer development. How miR-193a is regulated is poorly understood and the emerging picture is complex. To unravel this complexity, we propose a mathematical model to explore how estrogen-mediated up-regulation of another target of miR-193a, namely E2F6, can attenuate the function of miR-193a in two ways, one through a competition of E2F6 and c-KIT transcripts for miR-193a, and second by binding of E2F6 protein, in association with a polycomb complex, to the promoter of miR-193a to down-regulate its transcription. Our model predicts that this bimodal control increases the expression of c-KIT and that the second mode of epigenetic regulation is required to generate a switching behavior in c-KIT and E2F6 expressions. Additional analysis of the TCGA ovarian cancer dataset demonstrates that ovarian cancer patients with low expression of EZH2, a polycomb-group family protein, show positive correlation between E2F6 and c-KIT. We conjecture that a simultaneous EZH2 inhibition and anti-estrogen therapy can constitute an effective combined therapeutic strategy against ovarian cancer. ItemNeutralizing negative epigenetic regulation by HDAC5 enhances human haematopoietic stem cell homing and engraftment(Nature Publishing Group, 2018-07-16) Huang, Xinxin; Guo, Bin; Liu, Sheng; Wan, Jun; Broxmeyer, Hal E.; Microbiology and Immunology, School of MedicineEnhancement of hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) homing and engraftment is clinically critical, especially for cord blood (CB) hematopoietic cell transplantation. Here we report that specific HDAC5 inhibition highly upregulates CXCR4 surface expression in human CB HSCs and progenitor cells (HPCs). This results in enhanced SDF-1/CXCR4-mediated chemotaxis and increased homing to the bone marrow environment, with elevated SCID-repopulating cell (SRC) frequency and enhanced long-term and secondary engraftment in NSG mice. HDAC5 inhibition increases acetylated p65 levels in the nucleus, which is important for CXCR4 transcription. Inhibition of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling suppresses HDAC5-mediated CXCR4 upregulation, enhanced HSC homing, and engraftment. Furthermore, activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway via TNFα also results in significantly increased CXCR4 surface expression, enhanced HSC homing, and engraftment. These results demonstrate a previously unknown negative epigenetic regulation of HSC homing and engraftment by HDAC5, and allow for a new and simple translational strategy to enhance HSC transplantation. ItemNF-κB-dependent and -independent epigenetic modulation using the novel anti-cancer agent DMAPT(Nature Publishing Group, 2015-01-22) Nakshatri, H.; Appaiah, H. N.; Anjanappa, M.; Gilley, D.; Tanaka, H.; Badve, Sunil; Crooks, P. A.; Mathews, W.; Sweeney, C.; Bhat-Nakshatri, P.; Department of Surgery, IU School of MedicineThe transcription factor nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) is constitutively active in several cancers and is a target of therapeutic development. We recently developed dimethylaminoparthenolide (DMAPT), a clinical grade water-soluble analog of parthenolide, as a potent inhibitor of NF-κB and demonstrated in vitro and in vivo anti-tumor activities in multiple cancers. In this study, we show DMAPT is an epigenetic modulator functioning in an NF-κB-dependent and -independent manner. DMAPT-mediated NF-κB inhibition resulted in elevated histone H3K36 trimethylation (H3K36me3), which could be recapitulated through genetic ablation of the p65 subunit of NF-κB or inhibitor-of-kappaB alpha super-repressor overexpression. DMAPT treatment and p65 ablation increased the levels of H3K36 trimethylases NSD1 (KMT3B) and SETD2 (KMT3A), suggesting that NF-κB directly represses their expression and that lower H3K36me3 is an epigenetic marker of constitutive NF-κB activity. Overexpression of a constitutively active p65 subunit of NF-κB reduced NSD1 and H3K36me3 levels. NSD1 is essential for DMAPT-induced expression of pro-apoptotic BIM, indicating a functional link between epigenetic modification and gene expression. Interestingly, we observed enhanced H4K20 trimethylation and induction of H4K20 trimethylase KMT5C in DMAPT-treated cells independent of NF-κB inhibition. These results add KMT5C to the list NF-κB-independent epigenetic targets of parthenolide, which include previously described histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC-1) and DNA methyltransferase 1. As NSD1 and SETD2 are known tumor suppressors and loss of H4K20 trimethylation is an early event in cancer progression, which contributes to genomic instability, we propose DMAPT as a potent pharmacologic agent that can reverse NF-κB-dependent and -independent cancer-specific epigenetic abnormalities. ItemReversible epigenetic regulation of 14-3-3σ expression in acquired gemcitabine resistance by uhrf1 and DNA methyltransferase 1(American Society for Pharmacology & Experimental Therapeutics (ASPET), 2014-11) Qin, Li; Dong, Zizheng; Zhang, Jian-Ting; Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, IU School of MedicineAlthough gemcitabine is the most commonly used drug for treating pancreatic cancers, acquired gemcitabine resistance in a substantial number of patients appears to hinder its effectiveness in successful treatment of this dreadful disease. To understand acquired gemcitabine resistance, we generated a gemcitabine-resistant pancreatic cancer cell line using stepwise selection and found that, in addition to the known mechanisms of upregulated expression of ribonucleotide reductase, 14-3-3σ expression is dramatically upregulated, and that 14-3-3σ overexpression contributes to the acquired resistance to gemcitabine and cross-resistance to cytarabine. We also found that the increased 14-3-3σ expression in the gemcitabine-resistant cells is due to demethylation of the 14-3-3σ gene during gemcitabine selection, which could be partially reversed with removal of the gemcitabine selection pressure. Most importantly, the reversible methylation/demethylation of the 14-3-3σ gene appears to be carried out by DNA methyltransferase 1 under regulation by Uhrf1. These findings suggest that the epigenetic regulation of gene expression may play an important role in gemcitabine resistance, and that epigenetic modification is reversible in response to gemcitabine treatment.