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ItemA Patch-Wise Deep Learning Approach for Myocardial Blood Flow Quantification with Robustness to Noise and Nonrigid Motion(IEEE, 2021) Youssef, Khalid; Heydari, Bobby; Rivero, Luis Zamudio; Beaulieu, Taylor; Cheema, Karandeep; Dharmakumar, Rohan; Sharif, Behzad; Medicine, School of MedicineQuantitative analysis of dynamic contrast-enhanced cardiovascular MRI (cMRI) datasets enables the assessment of myocardial blood flow (MBF) for objective evaluation of ischemic heart disease in patients with suspected coronary artery disease. State-of-the-art MBF quantification techniques use constrained deconvolution and are highly sensitive to noise and motion-induced errors, which can lead to unreliable outcomes in the setting of high-resolution MBF mapping. To overcome these limitations, recent iterative approaches incorporate spatial-smoothness constraints to tackle pixel-wise MBF mapping. However, such iterative methods require a computational time of up to 30 minutes per acquired myocardial slice, which is a major practical limitation. Furthermore, they cannot enforce robustness to residual nonrigid motion which can occur in clinical stress/rest studies of patients with arrhythmia. We present a non-iterative patch-wise deep learning approach for pixel-wise MBF quantification wherein local spatio-temporal features are learned from a large dataset of myocardial patches acquired in clinical stress/rest cMRI studies. Our approach is scanner-independent, computationally efficient, robust to noise, and has the unique feature of robustness to motion-induced errors. Numerical and experimental results obtained using real patient data demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach.Clinical Relevance- The proposed patch-wise deep learning approach significantly improves the reliability of high-resolution myocardial blood flow quantification in cMRI by improving its robustness to noise and nonrigid myocardial motion and is up to 300-fold faster than state-of-the-art iterative approaches. ItemContribution of Perivascular Adipose Tissue to Coronary Vascular Dysfunction(2011-03-10) Payne, Gregory Allen; Tune, Johnathan D.; Bohlen, H. Glenn; Considine, Robert V.; Sturek, Michael StephenThe epidemic of obesity and associated cardiovascular complications continues to grow at an alarming rate. Currently, obesity is thought to initiate a state of chronic inflammation, which if unresolved potentially causes cardiovascular dysfunction and disease. Although poorly understood, release of inflammatory mediators and other cytokines from adipose tissue (adipocytokines) has been proposed to be the molecular link between obesity and coronary artery disease. Furthermore, the anatomic location of adipose has been increasingly recognized as a potential contributor to vascular disease. Importantly, the development of coronary atherosclerosis, a key component of heart disease, is typically found in segments of coronary arteries surrounded by perivascular adipose tissue. Accordingly, the goal of this project was to determine how perivascular adipose tissue affects coronary artery function and elucidate the critical mechanisms involved. Initial studies assessing arterial function were conducted with and without perivascular adipose tissue. Preliminary results demonstrated that factors released by perivascular adipose tissue effectively impaired coronary endothelial function both in vitro and in vivo. This observation was determined to be caused by direct inhibition of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), a critical enzyme for the production nitric oxide. Attenuation of endothelium-dependent vasodilation was independent of changes in superoxide production, smooth muscle response, or peroxide-mediated vasodilation. Additional studies revealed that perivascular adipose-induced impairment of NOS was due to increased inhibitory regulation by the β isoform of protein kinase C (PKC-β). Specifically, perivascular adipose-derived factors caused site specific phosphorylation of nitric oxide synthase at Thr-495. Additional experiments investigated how perivascular adipose-derived factors contributed to coronary artery disease in an animal model of obesity. Results from these studies indicated that perivascular adipose-derived leptin markedly exacerbated underlying endothelial dysfunction, and significantly contributed to coronary endothelial dysfunction through a PKC-β dependent mechanism. Findings from this project confirm epicardial perivascular adipose tissue as a local source of harmful adipocytokines. In addition, perivascular adipose-derived leptin was demonstrated to be a critical mediator of coronary vascular dysfunction in obesity. Together, the results strongly suggest that perivascular adipose tissue is a key contributor to coronary artery disease in obesity. ItemCritical contribution of KV1 channels to the regulation of coronary blood flow(Springer, 2016-09) Goodwill, Adam G.; Noblet, Jillian N.; Sassoon, Daniel; Fu, Lijuan; Kassab, Ghassan S.; Schepers, Luke; Herring, B. Paul; Rottgen, Trey S.; Tune, Johnathan D.; Dick, Gregory M.; Cellular and Integrative Physiology, School of MedicineIon channels in smooth muscle control coronary vascular tone, but the mechanisms require further investigation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the functional role of KV1 channels on porcine coronary blood flow by using the selective antagonist correolide. KV1 channel gene transcripts were found in porcine coronary arteries, with KCNA5 (encoding KV1.5) being most abundant (P<0.001). Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated KV1.5 protein in the vascular smooth muscle layer of both porcine and human coronary arteries, including microvessels. Whole-cell patch clamp experiments demonstrated significant correolide-sensitive (1–10 µM) current in coronary smooth muscle. In vivo studies included direct intracoronary infusion of vehicle or correolide into a pressure-clamped left anterior descending artery of healthy swine (n=5 in each group) with simultaneous measurement of coronary blood flow. Intracoronary correolide (~0.3–3 µM targeted plasma concentration) had no effect on heart rate or systemic pressure, but reduced coronary blood flow in a dose-dependent manner (P<0.05). Dobutamine (0.3–10 µg/kg/min) elicited coronary metabolic vasodilation and intracoronary correolide (3 µM) significantly reduced coronary blood flow at any given level of myocardial oxygen consumption (P<0.001). Coronary artery occlusions (15 s) elicited reactive hyperemia and correolide (3 µM) reduced the flow volume repayment by approximately 30% (P<0.05). Taken together, these data support a major role for KV1 channels in modulating baseline coronary vascular tone and perhaps vasodilation in response to increased metabolism and transient ischemia. ItemDisentangling the Gordian knot of local metabolic control of coronary blood flow(American Physiological Society, 2020-01-01) Tune, Johnathan D.; Goodwill, Adam G.; Kiel, Alexander M.; Baker, Hana E.; Bender, Shawn B.; Merkus, Daphne; Duncker, Dirk J.; Cellular and Integrative Physiology, School of MedicineRecognition that coronary blood flow is tightly coupled with myocardial metabolism has been appreciated for well over half a century. However, exactly how coronary microvascular resistance is tightly coupled with myocardial oxygen consumption (MV̇o2) remains one of the most highly contested mysteries of the coronary circulation to this day. Understanding the mechanisms responsible for local metabolic control of coronary blood flow has been confounded by continued debate regarding both anticipated experimental outcomes and data interpretation. For a number of years, coronary venous Po2 has been generally accepted as a measure of myocardial tissue oxygenation and thus the classically proposed error signal for the generation of vasodilator metabolites in the heart. However, interpretation of changes in coronary venous Po2 relative to MV̇o2 are quite nuanced, inherently circular in nature, and subject to confounding influences that remain largely unaccounted for. The purpose of this review is to highlight difficulties in interpreting the complex interrelationship between key coronary outcome variables and the arguments that emerge from prior studies performed during exercise, hemodilution, hypoxemia, and alterations in perfusion pressure. Furthermore, potential paths forward are proposed to help to facilitate further dialogue and study to ultimately unravel what has become the Gordian knot of the coronary circulation. ItemKV7 channels contribute to paracrine, but not metabolic or ischemic, regulation of coronary vascular reactivity in swine(American Physiological Society, 2016-03-15) Goodwill, Adam G.; Fu, Lijuan; Noblet, Jillian N.; Casalini, Eli D.; Sassoon, Daniel; Berwick, Zachary C.; Kassab, Ghassan S.; Tune, Johnathan D.; Dick, Gregory M.; Department of Cellular & Integrative Physiology, IU School of MedicineHydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and voltage-dependent K(+) (KV) channels play key roles in regulating coronary blood flow in response to metabolic, ischemic, and paracrine stimuli. The KV channels responsible have not been identified, but KV7 channels are possible candidates. Existing data regarding KV7 channel function in the coronary circulation (limited to ex vivo assessments) are mixed. Thus we examined the hypothesis that KV7 channels are present in cells of the coronary vascular wall and regulate vasodilation in swine. We performed a variety of molecular, biochemical, and functional (in vivo and ex vivo) studies. Coronary arteries expressed KCNQ genes (quantitative PCR) and KV7.4 protein (Western blot). Immunostaining demonstrated KV7.4 expression in conduit and resistance vessels, perhaps most prominently in the endothelial and adventitial layers. Flupirtine, a KV7 opener, relaxed coronary artery rings, and this was attenuated by linopirdine, a KV7 blocker. Endothelial denudation inhibited the flupirtine-induced and linopirdine-sensitive relaxation of coronary artery rings. Moreover, linopirdine diminished bradykinin-induced endothelial-dependent relaxation of coronary artery rings. There was no effect of intracoronary flupirtine or linopirdine on coronary blood flow at the resting heart rate in vivo. Linopirdine had no effect on coronary vasodilation in vivo elicited by ischemia, H2O2, or tachycardia. However, bradykinin increased coronary blood flow in vivo, and this was attenuated by linopirdine. These data indicate that KV7 channels are expressed in some coronary cell type(s) and influence endothelial function. Other physiological functions of coronary vascular KV7 channels remain unclear, but they do appear to contribute to endothelium-dependent responses to paracrine stimuli. ItemRegulation of Coronary Blood Flow(Wiley, 2017-03-16) Goodwill, Adam G.; Dick, Gregory M.; Kiel, Alexander M.; Tune, Johnathan D.; Cellular and Integrative Physiology, School of MedicineThe heart is uniquely responsible for providing its own blood supply through the coronary circulation. Regulation of coronary blood flow is quite complex and, after over 100 years of dedicated research, is understood to be dictated through multiple mechanisms that include extravascular compressive forces (tissue pressure), coronary perfusion pressure, myogenic, local metabolic, endothelial as well as neural and hormonal influences. While each of these determinants can have profound influence over myocardial perfusion, largely through effects on end-effector ion channels, these mechanisms collectively modulate coronary vascular resistance and act to ensure that the myocardial requirements for oxygen and substrates are adequately provided by the coronary circulation. The purpose of this series of Comprehensive Physiology is to highlight current knowledge regarding the physiologic regulation of coronary blood flow, with emphasis on functional anatomy and the interplay between the physical and biological determinants of myocardial oxygen delivery. © 2017 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 7:321-382, 2017. ItemRole of Voltage-Dependent K+ and Ca2+ Channels in Coronary Electromechanical Coupling: Effects of Metabolic Syndrome(2012-10-19) Berwick, Zachary C.; Tune, Johnathan D.; Basile, David P.; Mather, Kieren J.; Obukhov, Alexander G.; Sturek, Michael StephenRegulation of coronary blood flow is a highly dynamic process that maintains the delicate balance between oxygen delivery and metabolism in order to preserve cardiac function. Evidence to date support the finding that Kv and Cav1.2 channels are critical end-effectors in modulating vasomotor tone and blood flow. Yet the role for these channels in the coronary circulation in addition to their interdependent relationship remains largely unknown. Importantly, there is a growing body of evidence that suggests obesity and its pathologic components, i.e. metabolic syndrome (MetS), may alter coronary ion channel function. Accordingly, the overall goal of this investigation was to examine the contribution coronary Kv and Cav1.2 channels to the control of coronary blood flow in response to various physiologic conditions. Findings from this study also evaluated the potential for interaction between these channels, i.e. electromechanical coupling, and the impact obesity/MetS has on this mechanism. Using a highly integrative experimental approach, results from this investigation indicate Kv and Cav1.2 channels significantly contribute to the control of coronary blood flow in response to alterations in coronary perfusion pressure, cardiac ischemia, and during increases in myocardial metabolism. In addition, we have identified that impaired functional expression and electromechanical coupling of Kv and Cav1.2 channels represents a critical mechanism underlying coronary dysfunction in the metabolic syndrome. Thus, findings from this investigation provide novel mechanistic insight into the patho-physiologic regulation of Kv and Cav1.2 channels and significantly improve our understanding of obesity-related cardiovascular disease.