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ItemAutoimmune hyperphosphatemic tumoral calcinosis in a patient with FGF23 autoantibodies(American Society for Clinical Investigation, 2018-12-03) Roberts, Mary Scott; Burbelo, Peter D.; Egli-Spichtig, Daniela; Perwad, Farzana; Romero, Christopher J.; Ichikawa, Shoji; Farrow, Emily; Econs, Michael J.; Guthrie, Lori C.; Collins, Michael T.; Gafni, Rachel I.; Medicine, School of MedicineHyperphosphatemic familial tumoral calcinosis (HFTC)/hyperostosis-hyperphosphatemia syndrome (HHS) is an autosomal recessive disorder of ectopic calcification due to deficiency of or resistance to intact fibroblast growth factor 23 (iFGF23). Inactivating mutations in FGF23, N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 3 (GALNT3), or KLOTHO (KL) have been reported as causing HFTC/HHS. We present what we believe is the first identified case of autoimmune hyperphosphatemic tumoral calcinosis in an 8-year-old boy. In addition to the classical clinical and biochemical features of hyperphosphatemic tumoral calcinosis, the patient exhibited markedly elevated intact and C-terminal FGF23 levels, suggestive of FGF23 resistance. However, no mutations in FGF23, KL, or FGF receptor 1 (FGFR1) were identified. He subsequently developed type 1 diabetes mellitus, which raised the possibility of an autoimmune cause for hyperphosphatemic tumoral calcinosis. Luciferase immunoprecipitation systems revealed markedly elevated FGF23 autoantibodies without detectable FGFR1 or Klotho autoantibodies. Using an in vitro FGF23 functional assay, we found that the FGF23 autoantibodies in the patient's plasma blocked downstream signaling via the MAPK/ERK signaling pathway in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, this report describes the first case, to our knowledge, of autoimmune hyperphosphatemic tumoral calcinosis with pathogenic autoantibodies targeting FGF23. Identification of this pathophysiology extends the etiologic spectrum of hyperphosphatemic tumoral calcinosis and suggests that immunomodulatory therapy may be an effective treatment. ItemCalcitriol suppression of parathyroid hormone fails to improve skeletal properties in an animal model of chronic kidney disease(Karger, 2016) Newman, Christopher L.; Tian, Nannan; Hammond, Max A.; Wallace, Joseph M.; Brown, Drew M.; Chen, Neal X.; Moe, Sharon M.; Allen, Matthew R.; Department of Anatomy & Cell Biology, IU School of MedicineBACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) leads to complex metabolic changes and an increased risk of fracture. Currently, calcitriol is the standard of care as it effectively suppresses parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels in CKD patients. While calcitriol and its analogs improve BMD and reduce fractures in the general population, the extension of these benefits to patients with advanced kidney disease is unclear. Here, the impact of calcitriol on the skeleton was examined in the setting of reduction in PTH. METHODS: Male Cy/+ rats, a PKD-like CKD model, were treated with either vehicle or calcitriol for 5 weeks. Their normal littermates served as controls. Animals were assessed for changes in mineral metabolism and skeletal parameters (microCT, histology, whole bone mechanics and bone quality). RESULTS: PTH levels were significantly higher (12-fold) in animals with CKD compared to normal controls. CKD animals also exhibited negative changes in bone structural and mechanical properties. Calcitriol treatment resulted in a 60% suppression of PTH levels in animals with CKD. Despite these changes, it had no impact on bone volume (cortical or cancellous), bone turnover, osteoclast number or whole bone mechanical properties. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that while calcitriol effectively lowered PTH in rats with CKD, it did little to prevent the negative effects of secondary hyperparathyroidism on the skeleton. ItemCD166 modulates disease progression and osteolytic disease in multiple myeloma(2016-03-16) Xu, Linlin; Xu, LinlinMultiple myeloma (MM) is an incurable malignancy characterized by the proliferation of neoplastic plasma cells in the bone marrow (BM) and by multiple osteolytic lesions throughout the skeleton. We previously reported that CD166 is a functional molecule on normal hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) that plays a critical role in HSC homing and engraftment, suggesting that CD166 is involved in HSC trafficking and lodgment. CD166, a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily capable of mediating homophilic interactions, has been shown to enhance metastasis and invasion in several tumors. However, whether CD166 is involved in MM and plays a role in MM progression has not been addressed. We demonstrated that a fraction of all human MM cell lines tested and MM patients’ BM CD138+ cells express CD166. Additionally, CD166+ cells preferentially home to the BM of NSG mice. Knocking-down (KD) CD166 expression on MM cells with shRNA reduced their homing to the BM. Furthermore, in a long-term xenograft model, NSG mice inoculated with CD166KD cells showed delayed disease progression and prolonged survival compared to mice receiving mock transduced cells. To examine the potential role of CD166 in osteolytic lesions, we first used a novel Ex Vivo Organ Culture Assay (EVOCA) which creates an in vitro 3D system for the interaction of MM cells with the bone microenvironment. EVOCA data from MM cells lines as well as from primary MM patients’ CD138+ BM cells demonstrated that bone osteolytic resorption was significantly reduced when CD166 was absent on MM cells or calvarial cells. We then confirmed our ex vivo findings with intra-tibial inoculation of MM cells in vivo. Mice inoculated with CD166KD cells had significantly less osteolytic lesions. Further analysis demonstrated that CD166 expression on MM cells alters bone remodeling by inhibiting RUNX2 gene expression in osteoblast precursors and increasing RANKL to OPG ratio in osteoclast precursors. We also identified that CD166 is indispensable for osteoclastogenesis via the activation of TRAF6-dependent signaling pathways. These results suggest that CD166 directs MM cell homing to the BM and promotes MM disease progression and osteolytic disease. CD166 may serve as a therapeutic target in the treatment of MM. ItemGrowth factor independence 1 expression in myeloma cells enhances their growth, survival, and osteoclastogenesis(Biomed Central, 2018-10-04) Petrusca, Daniela N.; Toscani, Denise; Wang, Feng-Ming; Park, Cheolkyu; Crean, Colin D.; Anderson, Judith L.; Marino, Silvia; Mohammad, Khalid S.; Zhou, Dan; Silbermann, Rebecca; Sun, Quanhong; Kurihara, Noriyoshi; Galson, Deborah L.; Giuliani, Nicola; Roodman, G. David; Medicine, School of MedicineBACKGROUND: In spite of major advances in treatment, multiple myeloma (MM) is currently an incurable malignancy due to the emergence of drug-resistant clones. We previously showed that MM cells upregulate the transcriptional repressor, growth factor independence 1 (Gfi1), in bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) that induces prolonged inhibition of osteoblast differentiation. However, the role of Gfi1 in MM cells is unknown. METHODS: Human primary CD138+ and BMSC were purified from normal donors and MM patients' bone marrow aspirates. Gfi1 knockdown and overexpressing cells were generated by lentiviral-mediated shRNA. Proliferation/apoptosis studies were done by flow cytometry, and protein levels were determined by Western blot and/or immunohistochemistry. An experimental MM mouse model was generated to investigate the effects of MM cells overexpressing Gfi1 on tumor burden and osteolysis in vivo. RESULTS: We found that Gfi1 expression is increased in patient's MM cells and MM cell lines and was further increased by co-culture with BMSC, IL-6, and sphingosine-1-phosphate. Modulation of Gfi1 in MM cells had major effects on their survival and growth. Knockdown of Gfi1 induced apoptosis in p53-wt, p53-mutant, and p53-deficient MM cells, while Gfi1 overexpression enhanced MM cell growth and protected MM cells from bortezomib-induced cell death. Gfi1 enhanced cell survival of p53-wt MM cells by binding to p53, thereby blocking binding to the promoters of the pro-apoptotic BAX and NOXA genes. Further, Gfi1-p53 binding could be blocked by HDAC inhibitors. Importantly, inoculation of MM cells overexpressing Gfi1 in mice induced increased bone destruction, increased osteoclast number and size, and enhanced tumor growth. CONCLUSIONS: These results support that Gfi1 plays a key role in MM tumor growth, survival, and bone destruction and contributes to bortezomib resistance, suggesting that Gfi1 may be a novel therapeutic target for MM. ItemMetabolic diagnosis and medical prevention of calcium nephrolithiasis and its systemic manifestations: a consensus statement(Springer-Verlag, 2016-12) Gambaro, Giovanni; Croppi, Emanuele; Coe, Fredric; Lingeman, James; Moe, Orson; Worcester, Elen; Buchholz, Noor; Bushinsky, David; Curhan, Gary C.; Ferraro, Pietro Manuel; Fuster, Daniel; Goldfarb, David S.; Heilberg, Ita Pfeferman; Hess, Bernard; Lieske, John; Marangella, Martino; Milliner, Dawn; Preminger, Glen M.; Reis Santos, Jose’ Manuel; Sakhaee, Khashayar; Sarica, Kemal; Siener, Roswitha; Strazzullo, Pasquale; Williams, James C.; Department of Urology, School of MedicineBACKGROUND: Recently published guidelines on the medical management of renal stone disease did not address relevant topics in the field of idiopathic calcium nephrolithiasis, which are important also for clinical research. DESIGN: A steering committee identified 27 questions, which were proposed to a faculty of 44 experts in nephrolithiasis and allied fields. A systematic review of the literature was conducted and 5216 potentially relevant articles were selected; from these, 407 articles were deemed to provide useful scientific information. The Faculty, divided into working groups, analysed the relevant literature. Preliminary statements developed by each group were exhaustively discussed in plenary sessions and approved. RESULTS: Statements were developed to inform clinicians on the identification of secondary forms of calcium nephrolithiasis and systemic complications; on the definition of idiopathic calcium nephrolithiasis; on the use of urinary tests of crystallization and of surgical observations during stone treatment in the management of these patients; on the identification of patients warranting preventive measures; on the role of fluid and nutritional measures and of drugs to prevent recurrent episodes of stones; and finally, on the cooperation between the urologist and nephrologist in the renal stone patients. CONCLUSIONS: This document has addressed idiopathic calcium nephrolithiasis from the perspective of a disease that can associate with systemic disorders, emphasizing the interplay needed between urologists and nephrologists. It is complementary to the American Urological Association and European Association of Urology guidelines. Future areas for research are identified. ItemMorphological and mechanical characterization of bone phenotypes in the Amish G610C murine model of osteogenesis imperfecta(PLOS, 2021-08-27) Kohler, Rachel; Tastad, Carli A.; Creecy, Amy; Wallace, Joseph M.; Biomedical Engineering, School of Engineering and TechnologyOsteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a hereditary bone disease where gene mutations affect Type I collagen formation resulting in osteopenia and increased fracture risk. There are several established mouse models of OI, but some are severe and result in spontaneous fractures or early animal death. The Amish Col1a2G610C/+ (G610C) mouse model is a newer, moderate OI model that is currently being used in a variety of intervention studies, with differing background strains, sexes, ages, and bone endpoints. This study is a comprehensive mechanical and architectural characterization of bone in G610C mice bred on a C57BL/6 inbred strain and will provide a baseline for future treatment studies. Male and female wild-type (WT) and G610C mice were euthanized at 10 and 16 weeks (n = 13-16). Harvested tibiae, femora, and L4 vertebrae were scanned via micro-computed tomography and analyzed for cortical and trabecular architectural properties. Femora and tibiae were then mechanically tested to failure. G610C mice had less bone but more highly mineralized cortical and trabecular tissue than their sex- and age-matched WT counterparts, with cortical cross-sectional area, thickness, and mineral density, and trabecular bone volume, mineral density, spacing, and number all differing significantly as a function of genotype (2 Way ANOVA with main effects of sex and genotype at each age). In addition, mechanical yield force, ultimate force, displacement, strain, and toughness were all significantly lower in G610C vs. WT, highlighting a brittle phenotype. This characterization demonstrates that despite being a moderate OI model, the Amish G610C mouse model maintains a distinctly brittle phenotype and is well-suited for use in future intervention studies. ItemThe Role of the Osteocyte in Bone and Non-bone Disease(Elsevier, 2017-03) Bonewald, Lynda F.; Anatomy and Cell Biology, School of MedicineWhen normal physiological functions go awry, disorders and disease occurs. This is universal, even for the osteocyte, a cell embedded within the mineralized matrix of bone. It was once thought that this cell was simply a place-holder in bone. However, within the last decade, the number of studies of osteocytes has dramatically increased leading to the discovery of novel functions of these cells. But with the discovery of novel physiological functions came the discoveries of how these cells can also be responsible for not only bone diseases and disorders, but also those of kidney, heart, and potentially muscle. ItemSclerostin inhibition alleviates breast cancer-induced bone metastases and muscle weakness(American Society for Clinical Investigation, 2019-04-09) Hesse, Eric; Schröder, Saskia; Brandt, Diana; Pamperin, Jenny; Saito, Hiroaki; Taipaleenmäki, Hanna; Anatomy and Cell Biology, IU School of MedicineBreast cancer bone metastases often cause a debilitating non-curable condition with osteolytic lesions, muscle weakness and a high mortality. Current treatment comprises chemotherapy, irradiation, surgery and anti-resorptive drugs that restrict but do not revert bone destruction. In metastatic breast cancer cells, we determined the expression of sclerostin, a soluble Wnt inhibitor that represses osteoblast differentiation and bone formation. In mice with breast cancer bone metastases, pharmacological inhibition of sclerostin using an anti-sclerostin antibody (Scl-Ab) reduced metastases without tumor cell dissemination to other distant sites. Sclerostin inhibition prevented the cancer-induced bone destruction by augmenting osteoblast-mediated bone formation and reducing osteoclast-dependent bone resorption. During advanced disease, NF-κB and p38 signaling was increased in muscles in a TGF-β1-dependent manner, causing muscle fiber atrophy, muscle weakness and tissue regeneration with an increase in Pax7-positive satellite cells. Scl-Ab treatment restored NF-κB and p38 signaling, the abundance of Pax7-positive cells and ultimately muscle function. These effects improved the overall health condition and expanded the life span of cancer-bearing mice. Together, these results demonstrate that pharmacological inhibition of sclerostin reduces bone metastatic burden and muscle weakness with a prolongation of the survival time. This might provide novel options for treating musculoskeletal complications in breast cancer patients. .