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ItemA Stroke of the Pen: Dimensions of a Presidential Decision(Indiana University, 1975) Cedrone, James; Foley, William A., Jr.; Ginsberg, Susan; Goodrich, Allen; Hackman, Larry; Marci, Joan-Ellen ItemForward - From Normandy to the Bulge: An American Infantry G.I. in Europe during World War II(1996) Foley, William A., Jr. ItemAn economic model of a genetic resistance commons: Effects of market structure applied to biotechnology in agriculture(Resources for the Future, 2003) Noonan, Douglas S.Genetic resistance resources represent an emerging class of environmental resources. These resources are the subject of increasing public interest, especially for resistance in agriculture and antibiotic use. This paper models genetic resistance resources as common-pool resources. The static model applies directly to the case of Bt corn, whose seeds are bioengineered to contain a pesticide. Firms produce an agricultural output, corn, using two inputs: Bt corn seeds and refuge areas. Production also depends on the common stock of environmental resistance. Seed use contributes to greater resistance, while refuge areas abate resistance. This costly form of abatement represents another (positive) externality, which allows for the optimal seed use to be greater than the competitive level. The use of seeds and refuge areas by other firms can be shown to be substitutes and compliments in production, respectively, for each firm. This simple model of externalities is complicated by introducing another important feature common to genetic resistance resources: monopoly supply in the biotechnology factor market. Monopoly provision of seeds, with imperfect price discrimination, leads the monopoly to act as a gatekeeper of the commons who tries to maximize its own rents rather than the rents from the resource. This divergence in interests leads to a deadweight loss as seed use is curtailed through higher monopoly prices. This equilibrium is compared to the competitive and the optimal cases. The way in which the resistance externality operates, through damaging others’ output or through affecting their marginal productivities, suggests whether the monopoly improves the efficiency of the seed market. Further consideration is given to the possibility that the monopoly determines the firms’ level of abatement. Assuming some enforcement mechanism, the monopoly chooses higher abatement levels to increase factor demand for seeds and increase its rents. The Under some plausible conditions, a monopoly supplier of the input that accesses the genetic resistance commons can be shown to actually improve welfare by mandating a higher level of care that also maximizes its profits. The distributional consequences of the different market structures are shown, noting how gains for the monopoly come at the expense of firms. In 2000, the EPA and Monsanto required purchasers of Bt corn to plant specific refuge areas in order to forestall resistance. This approach is readily extended to other cases, such as pesticides more generally or antibiotic use in the production of health services by households. ItemLocal Politics and Violent Crime in U.S. Cites(2003-11) Stucky, Thomas D.Recent research has begun to examine the effects of politics on crime. However, few studies have considered how local political variation is likely to affect crime. Using insights from urban politics research, this paper develops and tests hypotheses regarding direct and conditional effects of local politics on violent crime in 958 cities in 1991. Results from negative binomial regression analyses show that violent crime rates vary by local political structures and the race of the mayor. In addition, the effects of structural factors such as poverty, unemployment, and female-headed households on violent crime depend on local form of government and the number of unreformed local governmental structures. Implications for systemic social disorganization and institutional anomie theories are discussed. ItemSharing criminal history record information: the Interstate Identification Index(2003-11) Grommon, Eric; Devitt, Christine ItemContingent Valuation and Cultural Resources: A Meta-Analytic Review of the Literature(2003-11) Noonan, Douglas S.Contingent valuation methodology (CVM) has been increasingly applied to cultural resources. CVM employs survey methods to gather stated preference information, which can be used to estimate economic values of various cultural resources and projects. Although popular in other fields, the application of CVM in the cultural arena is relatively recent. This article summarizes this growing body of empirical literature and its range of findings. A meta-analysis gives a statistical view of the “state of the art” of the literature. This preliminary analysis sheds light on the consistency and validity of the use of this method in cultural applications. ItemValuing Arts and Culture: A Research Agenda for Contingent Valuation(2004) Noonan, Douglas S.Presents information on the application of contingent valuation methodology (CVM) to value arts and cultural resources. Basic elements of CVM surveys; Criticisms against CVM as a measurement tool; Summary of results of a number of studies on willingness to pay for arts and theaters; Significance of CVM to fundraising efforts and in monitoring politicians' allocations of public resources; Discussion on communicating CVM findings. ItemSelected Readings: Department of Defense Organization, Planning and Strategy(2004) Foley, William A., Jr. ItemPARTISAN POLITICS, ELECTORAL COMPETITION, AND IMPRISONMENT: AN ANALYSIS OF STATES OVER TIME(2005-02) Stucky, Thomas D.; Heimer, Karen; Lang, Joseph B.The now well-documented explosion in prison populations over the last 30 years has spurred significant attention in the literature. Early research focused primarily on economic explanations. More recently it has focused on political explanations of prison growth. Here we extend research on political explanations of imprisonment by drawing on the literature on state politics and public policy. We argue that the effect of partisan politics on punishment is conditional on how much electoral competition legislators face. We test this hypothesis using annual state level data on imprisonment from 1978 to 1996. Our findings show that the effect of Republican state legislative strength on prison admissions depends on time and the level of competition in state legislative elections. We argue that these findings suggest the need for a more nuanced understanding of the link between partisan U.S. politics and imprisonment. ItemLocal politics and police strength(2005-06) Stucky, Thomas D.Numerous studies have explored variation in police employment across cities, usually focusing on public choice, conflict, or organizational explanations. Yet, few consider whether the local political context affects police employment. Recent research suggests that local politics affects criminal justice outcomes. Using insights from urban politics research, I develop testable hypotheses about the effects of local political arrangements on municipal police strength. WLS regression results suggest the value of considering local political context in models of police strength. Specifically, in a sample of 945 cities with 25,000 or more residents in 1990, net of other variables, cities with unreformed political systems (mayor‐council forms of government, district‐based city councils and partisan elections) had more police employees per 1,000 residents, and this effect varied by region. Additionally, the effect of minority populations and crime rates on police strength varied across municipal political contexts. Implications for theories of police strength are discussed.