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ItemFunctional role of BK virus tumor antigens in transformation.(American Society for Microbiology, 1988-12) Nakshatri, H; Pater, M M; Pater, AWe have examined the role of the human papovavirus BK virus (BKV) tumor (T) antigen(s) in the maintenance of transformation and have identified the domain of T antigen essential for transformation. BKV-transformed BHK 21 and NIH 3T3 cells expressing antisense T-antigen RNA lose their ability to grow in soft agar, indicating the need for the continued expression of T antigen for the maintenance of the transformed phenotype. Experiments using translation termination linker insertion and deletion mutagenesis of BKV T antigen demonstrate that amino acids 356 to 384 are essential for transformation. Although BKV T antigen shares 100, 95, and 82% amino acid homology with that of simian virus 40 (SV40) for the nuclear localization signal, p53-binding domain, and DNA-binding domain, respectively, the transformation domains of BKV and SV40 T antigens share only 54% homology. Also, BKV T antigen lacks a substantial portion of the ATPase domain of SV40, and our results indicate the dispensability of the remaining portion for transformation by this protein. We suggest that the differences in the amino acids in the identified transformation domains together with the differences in the ATPase domains may account for the differences in the transformation potentials of the two proteins. ItemA retinoic acid response element is present in the mouse cellular retinol binding protein I (mCRBPI) promoter.(EMBO Press, 1991-08) Smith, W C; Nakshatri, H; Leroy, P; Rees, J; Chambon, PGenomic and cDNA sequences for the mouse cellular retinol binding protein I (mCRBPI) are presented. A specific cis-acting element responsible for retinoic acid (RA) inducibility of the mCRBPI promoter was identified and characterized. Deletion mapping of a CRBPI promoter--chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter gene construct localized this element to a 259 bp restriction fragment located approximately 1 kb upstream from the transcription start-site. A sequence closely resembling the previously characterized RA response element (RARE) of the RA receptor beta 2 (RAR-beta 2) promoter, and consisting of a direct repeat of the motif 5'-GGTCA-3' separated by three nucleotides, was found within this restriction fragment. Mutation of these 5'-GGTCA-3' motifs to GGAGC and GGGGC abolished RA-inducible transcription whereas a mutation to a direct repeat of the GTTCA motif found in the RARE of the RAR-beta 2 promoter resulted in enhanced inducibility. Oligonucleotides containing the direct repeat of the GGTCA motif were able to confer RA-dependent transcriptional enhancement to the herpes simplex thymidine kinase promoter, as well as to bind directly all three retinoic acid receptors (RARs) alpha, beta and gamma, as determined by gel retardation/shift assays. The control of CRBPI gene transcription by RA-RAR complexes interacting with the RARE characterized here may correspond to a feedback mechanism important in regulating retinoid metabolism and action. ItemMouse retinoic acid receptor alpha 2 isoform is transcribed from a promoter that contains a retinoic acid response element.(National Academy of Sciences, 1991-11-15) Leroy, P; Nakshatri, H; Chambon, PWe have characterized the promoter of the mouse retinoic acid receptor alpha 2 (mRAR-alpha 2) isoform. This promoter contains a retinoic acid response element (RARE) that closely resembles the RARE that is present in the RAR-beta 2 promoter. Moreover, RAR-alpha 2 and RAR-beta 2 proximal promoter sequences are similar to each other and generate transcripts whose respective start sites are located at similar positions. The RAR-alpha 2 RARE consists of two directly repeated 5'-GTTCA-3' motifs to which all three RARs (alpha, beta, and gamma) bind in vitro. ItemRetinoid receptors and binding proteins(Company of Biologists, 1992-01-01) Lohnes, David; Dierich, Andrée; Ghyselinck, Norbert; Kastner, Phillipe; Lampron, Carmen; LeMEUR, Marianne; Lufkin, Thomas; Mendelsohn, Cathy; Nakshatri, Hari; Chambon, PierreSkip to Next Section Retinoids, in particular all-trans retinoic acid (T-RA), are essential for normal development and homeostasis of vertebrates. Although many effects of retinoids, particularily with regard to teratogenicity, have been described in the literature, the mechanisms by which these simple signalling molecules work has only recently begun to be elucidated. We now recognize at least two classes of retinoid-binding proteins and two families of retinoid receptors. The ultimate interpretation of the retinoid signal within a given cell is probably the result of a complex series of interactions between these proteins, yet little is understood concerning the role each member of this signalling pathway plays. It is therefore imperative to dissect the molecular mechanisms which transduce the effects of these ligands, both in vivo and in isolated systems. One approach we are employing is gene targeting of retinoic acid receptors (RARs) and cellular retinoid-binding proteins to generate mice in which one or more of these genes has been functionally inactivated. ItemRARs and RXRs: evidence for two autonomous transactivation functions (AF-1 and AF-2) and heterodimerization in vivo.(EMBO Press, 1993-06) Nagpal, S; Friant, S; Nakshatri, H; Chambon, PWe have previously reported that the AB regions of retinoic acid receptors (RARs and RXRs) contain a transcriptional activation function capable of modulating the activity of the ligand-dependent activation function present in the C-terminal DE regions of these receptors. However, we could not demonstrate that these AB regions possess an autonomous activation function similar to the AF-1s found in the AB regions of steroid hormone receptors. Using the mouse CRBPII promoter as a reporter gene, we now report that the AB regions of RAR alpha, beta and gamma, as well as those of RXR alpha and gamma, contain an autonomous, ligand-independent activation function, AF-1, which can efficiently synergize with AF-2s. Moreover, AF-1s account for the ligand-independent, constitutive activation of transcription by RXR alpha and gamma. We also show that RARs and RXRs preferentially heterodimerize in solution in cultured cells in vivo, through the dimerization interface present in their E region, irrespective of the presence of all-trans or 9-cis retinoic acid. Furthermore, our results indicate that homodimeric interactions are not observed in cultured cells in vivo under conditions where heterodimeric interactions readily occur, which is in agreement with previous observations showing the preferential binding of RAR-RXR heterodimers to RA response elements in vitro. ItemThe directly repeated RG(G/T)TCA motifs of the rat and mouse cellular retinol-binding protein II genes are promiscuous binding sites for RAR, RXR, HNF-4, and ARP-1 homo- and heterodimers.(American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1994-01-04) Nakshatri, H.; Chambon, P.We show here that the element which was previously characterized as a retinoid X receptor (RXR)-specific response element (RXRE) in the rat cellular retinol-binding protein II (CRBPII) gene is not conserved in the mouse gene. However, two conserved cis-acting elements (RE2 and RE3) located in the promoter region of the mouse and rat CRBPII genes mediate transactivation by retinoic acid receptors (RARs) and RXRs in transfected Cos-1, CV-1, and HeLa cells. The element RE3 which is the major retinoic acid (RA) response element also binds the transcription factors HNF-4 and ARP-1. HNF-4 constitutively activates the mouse CRBPII promoter, whereas ARP-1 represses the activation mediated by RARs, RXRs, and HNF-4. In contrast, RA has no effect on the activity of the mouse CRBPII promoter in the human colon carcinoma cell line CaCo-2 which constitutively expresses RAR alpha, RAR gamma, RXR alpha, HNF-4, and ARP-1, under conditions where the activity of the RAR beta 2 gene promoter is readily induced by RA. Our results suggest that the CRBPII gene may not be RA-inducible in tissues expressing HNF-4 and ARP-1, and that the RA inducibility of the CRBPII gene promoter observed in transfection experiments reflects the promiscuous binding of RARs/RXRs to HNF-4 and ARP-1 response elements. ItemInteraction of Oct-1 with TFIIB. Implications for a novel response elicited through the proximal octamer site of the lipoprotein lipase promoter(American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1995-08-18) Nakshatri, Harikrishna; Nakshatri, Poornima; Currie, R. AlexanderThe ubiquitous human POU domain protein, Oct-1, and the related B-cell protein, Oct-2, regulate transcription from a variety of eukaryotic genes by binding to a common cis-acting octamer element, 5′-ATTTGCAT-3′. The binding of Oct-1 and Oct-2 to the functionally important lipoprotein lipase (LPL) promoter octamer site was stimulated by the general transcription factor, TFIIB. Comparative analysis of the LPL, histone H2B (H2B), and herpes simplex virus ICPO gene promoter octamer sites revealed that nucleotide sequences within and flanking the octamer sequence determined the degree of TFIIB-mediated stimulation of Oct-1 DNA binding. TFIIB was found to decrease the rate of dissociation of Oct-1 from the LPL octamer site, whereas it increased the rate of association, as well as decreased the rate of dissociation, of Oct-1 from the H2B octamer site. A monoclonal antibody against TFIIB immunoprecipitated a ternary complex containing TFIIB, Oct-1, and the LPL and H2B octamer binding sites. TFIIB did not alter the DNase I footprints generated by Oct-1 on the LPL and H2B promoters. However, Oct-1 prevented TATA-binding protein and TFIIB from footprinting the perfect TATA box sequence located 5′ of the LPL NF-Y binding site. In transfection experiments, transcription from reporters containing the LPL octamer, and either the SV40 or the yeast transcription factor GAL4-dependent enhancers, initiated at a precise position within the octamer sequence. Transcription from reporters containing the H2B octamer and the SV40 enhancer initiated at several positions within and flanking the octamer site, whereas transcription initiated at a precise position within the octamer from reporters with both the H2B octamer and the GAL4-dependent enhancer. These results suggest that octamers and their flanking sequences play an important role in positioning the site of transcription initiation, and that this could be a function of the interaction of Oct-1 with TFIIB. ItemCNI-1493 inhibits monocyte/macrophage tumor necrosis factor by suppression of translation efficiency(Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 1996-04-30) Cohen, P. S.; Nakshatri, H.; Dennis, J.; Caragine, T.; Bianchi, M.; Cerami, A.; Tracey, K. J.Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) mediates a wide variety of disease states including septic shock, acute and chronic inflammation, and cachexia. Recently, a multivalent guanylhydrazone (CNI-1493) developed as an inhibitor of macrophage activation was shown to suppress TNF production and protect against tissue inflammation and endotoxin lethality [Bianchi, M., Ulrich, P., Bloom, O., Meistrell, M., Zimmerman, G. A., Schmidtmayerova, H., Bukrinsky, M., Donnelley, T., Bucala, R., Sherry, B., Manogue, K. R., Tortolani, A. J., Cerami, A. & Tracey, K. J. (1995) Mol. Med. 1, 254-266, and Bianchi, M., Bloom, O., Raabe, T., Cohen, P. S., Chesney, J., Sherry, B., Schmidtmayerova, H., Zhang, X., Bukrinsky, M., Ulrich, P., Cerami, A. & Tracey, J. (1996) J. Exp. Med., in press]. We have now elucidated the mechanism by which CNI-1493 inhibits macrophage TNF synthesis and show here that it acts through suppression of TNF translation efficiency. CNI-1493 blocked neither the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced increases in the expression of TNF mRNA nor the translocation of nuclear factor NF-kappa B to the nucleus in macrophages activated by 15 min of LPS stimulation, indicating that CNI-1493 does not interfere with early NF-kappa B-mediated transcriptional regulation of TNF. However, synthesis of the 26-kDa membrane form of TNF was effectively blocked by CNI-1493. Further evidence for the translational suppression of TNF is given by experiments using chloram-phenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) constructs containing elements of the TNF gene that are involved in TNF translational regulation. Both the 5' and 3' untranslated regions of the TNF gene were required to elicit maximal translational suppression by CNI-1493. Identification of the molecular target through which CNI-1493 inhibits TNF translation should provide insight into the regulation of macrophage activation and mechanisms of inflammation. ItemSubunit Association and DNA Binding Activity of the Heterotrimeric Transcription Factor NF-Y Is Regulated by Cellular Redox(American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1996-11-15) Nakshatri, Harikrishna; Bhat-Nakshatri, Poornima; Currie, R. AlexanderNF-Y is a heterotrimeric transcription factor that specifically recognizes a CCAAT box motif found in a variety of eukaryotic promoter and enhancer elements. The subunit association and DNA binding properties of the NF-Y complex were examined as a function of redox state using recombinant NF-YA, NF-YB, and NF-YC subunits. Reduction of NF-YB by dithiothreitol (DTT) was essential for reconstitution of specific NF-Y CCAAT box DNA binding activity in vitro. Approximately 30% of the Escherichia coli-derived NF-YB subunit existed as intermolecular disulfide-linked dimers. NF-YB mutants in which the highly conserved cysteine residues at positions 85 and 89 had been converted to serines existed only as monomers and did not require DTT for functional NF-Y DNA binding activity. DTT was required, however, for the functional association of NF-YC with wild-type NF-YB but not with the NF-YB cysteine mutants. The cellular redox factors Ref-1 and adult T-cell leukemia-derived factor stimulated the DNA binding activity of recombinant NF-Y in the absence of DTT. Cells treated with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene, an irreversible inhibitor of thioredoxin reductase, exhibited reduced endogenous NF-Y DNA binding activity. Together these results suggest that the cellular redox environment of mammalian cells is an important posttranscriptional regulator of NF-Y subunit association and DNA binding activities.