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Browsing by Author "Salyers, Michelle P."
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ItemAdditional Support for the Cognitive Model of Schizophrenia: Evidence of Elevated Defeatist Beliefs in Schizotypy(Elsevier, 2016-07) Luther, Lauren; Salyers, Michelle P.; Firmin, Ruth L.; Marggraf, Matthew P.; Davis, Beshaun; Minor, Kyle S.; Department of Psychology, School of ScienceObjectives The cognitive model of poor functioning in schizophrenia posits that defeatist performance beliefs—overgeneralized negative beliefs about one's ability to perform tasks—develop prior to the onset of psychosis and contribute to the development and maintenance of negative symptoms and poor functioning. Although several studies with schizophrenia samples have provided support for the model, there is a paucity of research investigating these beliefs in individuals with schizotypy—those exhibiting traits reflecting a putative genetic liability for schizophrenia. This study had two aims: to examine whether defeatist performance beliefs (1) are elevated in schizotypy compared to controls and (2) are associated with decreased quality of life and working memory and increased negative but not positive schizotypy traits in the schizotypy group. Methods Schizotypy (n = 48) and control (n = 53) groups completed measures of schizotypy traits, defeatist performance beliefs, quality of life, and working memory. Results Analyses revealed that the schizotypy group reported significantly more defeatist performance beliefs than the control group. Within the schizotypy group, increased defeatist performance beliefs were significantly associated with greater negative schizotypy traits and lower quality of life. No significant associations were observed between defeatist performance beliefs and positive schizotypy traits and working memory. Conclusions Results generally support the theoretical validity of the cognitive model of poor functioning in schizophrenia and suggest that elevated defeatist performance beliefs may contribute to the manifestation of subclinical negative symptom traits and reduced quality of life among those with a latent vulnerability for schizophrenia. ItemAffective Empathy in Schizophrenia: A Meta-Analysis(Elsevier, 2016-08) Bonfils, Kelsey A.; Lysaker, Paul H.; Minor, Kyle S.; Salyers, Michelle P.; Department of Psychiatry, IU School of MedicineBackground Affective empathy, or the emotional response one has to the experiences or emotional states of others, contributes to relationship-maintaining behaviors and is key in fostering social connections, yet no work has synthesized the body of literature for people with schizophrenia. The aim of the present meta-analysis was to determine the extent to which those diagnosed with schizophrenia experience deficits in affective empathy. Methods A literature search was conducted of studies examining empathy. Data were analyzed using a random effects meta-analytic model with Hedges' g standardized mean difference effect size. Results Individuals with schizophrenia exhibited significant, medium deficits in affective empathy (k = 37). Measurement type moderated the affective empathy deficit such that performance-based measures showed larger schizophrenia group deficits than self-report measures. Conclusion Consistent, significant deficits in affective empathy were found comparing people with schizophrenia to healthy controls, especially when using performance-based assessments. The medium effect suggests an important role for empathy in the realm of social cognitive research, and points to the need for further investigation of measurement techniques and associations with functional outcomes. ItemAgenda Setting in Psychiatric Consultations: An Exploratory Study(2013) Frankel, Richard M.; Salyers, Michelle P.; Bonfils, Kelsey; Oles, Sylwia; Matthias, Marianne S. ItemAppreciative Inquiry as Organizational Change in a Community Mental Health Setting(Office of the Vice Chancellor for Research, 2013-04-05) Firmin, Ruth L.; Salyers, Michelle P.; Gerhart, Timothy; Frankel, Richard M.; Avery, ElizabethAppreciative Inquiry (AI) is an approach to organizational change that focuses on the strengths of an organization – discovering what is working well, and generating ideas within the organization for building on those strengths. AI has been applied in a variety of contexts including education, social work, health care, and academia. Little to no research, however, has applied AI to mental health contexts. The current study reports themes from staff member interviews conducted in the early phases of AI applied in a community mental health center (CMHC); these themes paint a picture of this CMHC “at its best” and will be fed-back to employees to lay the foundation for change and enhancing morale among staff. Interviews were conducted by 11 staff who volunteered from various departments and were trained by research staff at an all-day training. Appreciative Interviews first involved asking staff to describe a time they were at their best at this organization. Next, participants were asked to share what it was about themselves, others, and the setting that contributed to this experience. Additionally, interviewees were asked to “dream into the future” and to describe what they wish to see for this organization. Interviews were audio recorded, transcribed, and de-identified. Iterative, consensus-based coding was conducted by a multidisciplinary team that included CMHC staff. Several consistent themes emerged among participants’ stories. Staff at their best frequently reported feeling effective and seeing success in working with consumers. Other themes included working as a team, communicating well, and trusting one another. Stories also involved feeling valued and supported by their supervisors and coworkers. A foundational aspect involved believing in and caring about consumers with whom they work. Themes from participants’ interviews reflect perceptions of this community mental health center at its best and are consistent with tenets self-determination theory and future study. ItemAssertive Community Treatment for Parents With Serious Mental Illnesses: A Comparison of "Parent-Sensitive" Assertive Community Treatment Teams Versus Other Teams(2014-02-24) White, Laura M.; McGrew, John H.; Salyers, Michelle P.; Firmin, Ruth L. ItemBarriers and Facilitators to Work Success for Veterans in Supported Employment: A Nationwide Provider Survey(APA, 2016-04) Kukla, Marina; McGuire, Alan B.; Salyers, Michelle P.; Department of Psychology, School of Sciencebjective: Veterans with mental illness are at serious risk of poor work outcomes and career stagnation. Supported employment (SE) is an evidence-based model of vocational services that assists persons with mental illness to obtain competitive employment. The purpose of this study was to gain a rich understanding of barriers and facilitators related to competitive work success from the perspective of a nationwide sample of U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) SE staff, supervisors, and managers. Methods: This study utilized a mixed-methods approach in which 114 VA SE personnel completed an online questionnaire consisting of a survey of work barriers and facilitators; open-ended questions elicited additional factors affecting work success. Descriptive statistics characterized factors affecting work success, and an emergent, open-coding approach identified qualitative themes describing other key elements influencing employment. Results: The most prominent work facilitators were perceived veteran motivation, job match, the assistance of SE services, and veteran self-confidence. The highest rated barriers were psychological stress and a range of health-related problems. Qualitative findings revealed additional areas affecting work success, notably, the availability of resources, the capacity of frontline staff to form strong relationships with veterans and employers, the ability of staff to adapt and meet the multifaceted demands of the SE job, and the need for additional staff and supervisor training. The impact of employer stigma was also emphasized. Conclusions: An array of elements influencing work success at the level of the veteran, staff, SE program, and employer was recognized, suggesting several implications for VA services. ItemBenefits of Integrated Care in Mental Illness Management(Office of the Vice Chancellor for Research, 2014-04-11) Benbow, Kyle L.; Bonfils, Kelsey A.; Salyers, Michelle P.Many people who suffer from serious mental illness have comorbid physical conditions that can cause further disability. Integrated care combines physical and mental health facilities, focusing on coordination and continuity of treatment in order to better serve patients dealing with multiple health conditions. The present study analyzed qualitative interviews conducted individuals with conditions with severe mental illness and comorbid physical health conditions, speaking about benefits of integrated care. Forty adults receiving services from a community mental health center were asked their opinions about integrated care and what steps could be taken to improve these services. Transcribed interviews were reviewed by two people, searching for common themes within the text. Many positives were highlighted throughout these interviews including the convenience of coordination of care, along with the ability to make one trip for all their medical needs, and the friendless of the on-site staff. Results showed that consumers using integrated care felt a value in its benefits. As the practice of integrate care continues, further research into the connections between mental and physical health can start being conducted. The communication between doctors of different fields presents opportunities to potentially develop new treatment plans and models for therapy. Integrated care is an excellent platform that combines the ability to better serve the community by providing multiple services to those in need while providing another opportunity to research and understand the connections between physical and mental health issues. ItemBREATHE: A Pilot Study of a One-Day Retreat to Reduce Burnout Among Mental Health Professionals(2011-02) Salyers, Michelle P.; Hudson, Candice; Morse, Gary; Rollins, Angela L.; Monroe-DeVita, Maria; Wilson, Cynthia; Freeland, LeahOBJECTIVE: Staff burnout is a frequent problem for mental health providers and may be associated with negative outcomes for providers, consumers, and organizations. This study tested an intervention to reduce staff burnout. METHODS: Community mental health providers were invited to participate in a day-long training session to learn methods to reduce burnout. A Web-based survey was given at time of registration, before the intervention, and again six weeks later. RESULTS: Eighty-four providers participated in the training, and follow-up data were available for 74. Six weeks after the day-long training, staff reported significant decreases in emotional exhaustion and depersonalization and significant increases in positive views toward consumers. There were no significant changes in providers' sense of personal accomplishment, job satisfaction, or intention to leave their position. Ninety-one percent of the staff reported the training to be helpful. CONCLUSIONS: This brief intervention is feasible, is acceptable to staff, and may improve burnout and staff attitudes. ItemBurnout and Self-Reported Quality of Care in Community Mental Health(2014) Salyers, Michelle P.; Fukui, Sadaaki; Rollins, Angela L.; Firmin, Ruth; Gearhart, Timothy; Noll, James P.; Williams, Stacy; Davis, C.J. ItemBurnout and self-reported quality of care in community mental health(Springer, 2015-01) Salyers, Michelle P.; Fukui, Sadaaki; Rollins, Angela L.; Firmin, Ruth; Gearhart, Timothy; Noll, James P.; Williams, Stacy; Davis, C.J.; Department of Psychology, School of ScienceStaff burnout is widely believed to be problematic in mental healthcare, but few studies have linked burnout directly with quality of care. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between burnout and a newly developed scale for quality of care in a sample of community mental health workers (N=113). The Self-Reported Quality of Care scale had three distinct factors (Client-Centered Care, General Work Conscientiousness, and Low Errors), with good internal consistency. Burnout, particularly personal accomplishment, and to a lesser extent depersonalization, were predictive of overall self-rated Quality of Care, over and above background variables.