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Browsing by Author "Plotkin, Lilian I."
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Item6'-Methoxy Raloxifene-analog enhances mouse bone properties with reduced estrogen receptor binding(Elsevier, 2020-01-17) Powell, Katherine M.; Brown, Alexa P.; Skaggs, Cayla G.; Pulliam, Alexis N.; Berman, Alycia G.; Deosthale, Padmini; Plotkin, Lilian I.; Allen, Matthew R.; Williams, David R.; Wallace, Joseph M.; Biomedical Engineering, School of Engineering and TechnologyRaloxifene (RAL) is an FDA-approved drug used to treat osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. RAL suppresses bone loss primarily through its role as a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM). This hormonal estrogen therapy promotes unintended side effects, such as hot flashes and increased thrombosis risk, and prevents the drug from being used in some patient populations at-risk for fracture, including children with bone disorders. It has recently been demonstrated that RAL can have significant positive effects on overall bone mechanical properties by binding to collagen and increasing bone tissue hydration in a cell-independent manner. A Raloxifene-Analog (RAL-A) was synthesized by replacing the 6-hydroxyl substituent with 6-methoxy in effort to reduce the compound's binding affinity for estrogen receptors (ER) while maintaining its collagen-binding ability. It was hypothesized that RAL-A would improve the mechanical integrity of bone in a manner similar to RAL, but with reduced estrogen receptor binding. Molecular assessment showed that while RAL-A did reduce ER binding, downstream ER signaling was not completely abolished. In-vitro, RAL-A performed similarly to RAL and had an identical concentration threshold on osteocyte cell proliferation, differentiation, and function. To assess treatment effect in-vivo, wildtype (WT) and heterozygous (OIM+/-) female mice from the Osteogenesis Imperfecta (OI) murine model were treated with either RAL or RAL-A from 8 weeks to 16 weeks of age. There was an untreated control group for each genotype as well. Bone microarchitecture was assessed using microCT, and mechanical behavior was assessed using 3-point bending. Results indicate that both compounds produced analogous gains in tibial trabecular and cortical microarchitecture. While WT mechanical properties were not drastically altered with either treatment, OIM+/- mechanical properties were significantly enhanced, most notably, in post-yield properties including bone toughness. This proof-of-concept study shows promising results and warrants the exploration of additional analog iterations to further reduce ER binding and improve fracture resistance. ItemAge- and sex-dependent role of osteocytic pannexin1 on bone and muscle mass and strength(Nature Research, 2019-09-25) Aguilar-Perez, Alexandra; Pacheco-Costa, Rafael; Atkinson, Emily G.; Deosthale, Padmini; Davis, Hannah M.; Essex, Alyson L.; Dilley, Julian E.; Gomez, Leland; Rupert, Joseph E.; Zimmers, Teresa A.; Thompson, Roger J.; Allen, Matthew R.; Plotkin, Lilian I.; Anatomy and Cell Biology, School of MedicinePannexins (Panxs), glycoproteins that oligomerize to form hemichannels on the cell membrane, are topologically similar to connexins, but do not form cell-to-cell gap junction channels. There are 3 members of the family, 1-3, with Panx1 being the most abundant. All Panxs are expressed in bone, but their role in bone cell biology is not completely understood. We now report that osteocytic Panx1 deletion (Panx1Δot) alters bone mass and strength in female mice. Bone mineral density after reaching skeletal maturity is higher in female Panx1Δot mice than in control Panx1fl/fl mice. Further, osteocytic Panx1 deletion partially prevented aging effects on cortical bone structure and mechanical properties. Young 4-month-old female Panx1Δot mice exhibited increased lean body mass, even though pannexin levels in skeletal muscle were not affected; whereas no difference in lean body mass was detected in male mice. Furthermore, female Panx1-deficient mice exhibited increased muscle mass without changes in strength, whereas Panx1Δot males showed unchanged muscle mass and decreased in vivo maximum plantarflexion torque, indicating reduced muscle strength. Our results suggest that osteocytic Panx1 deletion increases bone mass in young and old female mice and muscle mass in young female mice, but has deleterious effects on muscle strength only in males. ItemApoptotic osteocytes and the control of targeted bone resorption(Springer US, 2014-03) Plotkin, Lilian I.; Department of Anatomy & Cell Biology, IU School of MedicineStudies from the 1950s and 1960s already recognize the fact that osteocytes, although long living cells, die, as evidenced by accumulation of osteocytic lacunae devoid of cells. More recently, it was demonstrated that these cells die by apoptosis. The rate of osteocyte apoptosis is regulated by the age of the bone, as well as by systemic hormones, local growth factors, cytokines, pharmacological agents, and mechanical forces. Apoptotic osteocytes, in turn, recruit osteoclasts to initiate targeted bone resorption. This results in the removal of “dead” bone and may improve the mechanical properties of the skeleton. However, the molecular regulators of osteocyte survival and targeted bone remodeling are not completely known. In this review, the current knowledge on the molecular mechanism that lead to osteocyte death or survival, and the signals that mediate targeted bone resorption is discussed. ItemAvenanthramides Prevent Osteoblast and Osteocyte Apoptosis and Induce Osteoclast Apoptosis in Vitro in an Nrf2-Independent Manner(MDPI, 2016-07-11) Pellegrini, Gretel G.; Morales, Cynthya C.; Wallace, Taylor C.; Plotkin, Lilian I.; Bellido, Teresita; Department of Anatomy & Cell Biology, IU School of MedicineOats contain unique bioactive compounds known as avenanthramides (AVAs) with antioxidant properties. AVAs might enhance the endogenous antioxidant cellular response by activation of the transcription factor Nrf2. Accumulation of reactive oxygen species plays a critical role in many chronic and degenerative diseases, including osteoporosis. In this disease, there is an imbalance between bone formation by osteoblasts and bone resorption by osteoclasts, which is accompanied by increased osteoblast/osteocyte apoptosis and decreased osteoclast apoptosis. We investigated the ability of the synthethic AVAs 2c, 2f and 2p, to 1-regulate gene expression in bone cells, 2-affect the viability of osteoblasts, osteocytes and osteoclasts, and the generation of osteoclasts from their precursors, and 3-examine the potential involvement of the transcription factor Nrf2 in these actions. All doses of AVA 2c and 1 and 5 µM dose of 2p up-regulated collagen 1A expression. Lower doses of AVAs up-regulated OPG (osteoprotegerin) in OB-6 osteoblastic cells, whereas 100 μM dose of 2f and all concentrations of 2c down-regulated RANKL gene expression in MLO-Y4 osteocytic cells. AVAs did not affect apoptosis of OB-6 osteoblastic cells or MLO-Y4 osteocytic cells; however, they prevented apoptosis induced by the DNA topoisomerase inhibitor etoposide, the glucocorticoid dexamethasone, and hydrogen peroxide. AVAs prevented apoptosis of both wild type (WT) and Nrf2 Knockout (KO) osteoblasts, demonstrating that AVAs-induced survival does not require Nrf2 expression. Further, KO osteoclast precursors produced more mature osteoclasts than WT; and KO cultures exhibited less apoptotic osteoclasts than WT cultures. Although AVAs did not affect WT osteoclasts, AVA 2p reversed the low apoptosis of KO osteoclasts. These in vitro results demonstrate that AVAs regulate, in part, the function of osteoblasts and osteocytes and prevent osteoblast/osteocyte apoptosis and increase osteoclast apoptosis; further, these regulatory actions are independent of Nrf2. ItemBidirectional Notch signaling and osteocyte-derived factors in the bone marrow microenvironment promote tumor cell proliferation and bone destruction in multiple myeloma(American Association for Cancer Research, 2016-03-01) Delgado-Calle, Jesus; Anderson, Judith; Cregor, Meloney D.; Hiasa, Masahiro; Chirgwin, John M.; Carlesso, Nadia; Yoneda, Toshiyuki; Mohammad, Khalid S.; Plotkin, Lilian I.; Roodman, G. David; Bellido, Teresita; Department of Anatomy & Cell Biology, IU School of MedicineIn multiple myeloma, an overabundance of monoclonal plasma cells in the bone marrow induces localized osteolytic lesions that rarely heal due to increased bone resorption and suppressed bone formation. Matrix-embedded osteocytes comprise more than 95% of bone cells and are major regulators of osteoclast and osteoblast activity, but their contribution to multiple myeloma growth and bone disease is unknown. Here, we report that osteocytes in a mouse model of human MM physically interact with multiple myeloma cells in vivo, undergo caspase-3-dependent apoptosis, and express higher RANKL (TNFSF11) and sclerostin levels than osteocytes in control mice. Mechanistic studies revealed that osteocyte apoptosis was initiated by multiple myeloma cell-mediated activation of Notch signaling and was further amplified by multiple myeloma cell-secreted TNF. The induction of apoptosis increased osteocytic Rankl expression, the osteocytic Rankl/Opg (TNFRSF11B) ratio, and the ability of osteocytes to attract osteoclast precursors to induce local bone resorption. Furthermore, osteocytes in contact with multiple myeloma cells expressed high levels of Sost/sclerostin, leading to a reduction in Wnt signaling and subsequent inhibition of osteoblast differentiation. Importantly, direct contact between osteocytes and multiple myeloma cells reciprocally activated Notch signaling and increased Notch receptor expression, particularly Notch3 and 4, stimulating multiple myeloma cell growth. These studies reveal a previously unknown role for bidirectional Notch signaling that enhances MM growth and bone disease, suggesting that targeting osteocyte-multiple myeloma cell interactions through specific Notch receptor blockade may represent a promising treatment strategy in multiple myeloma. ItemBisphosphonate Binding Affinity Affects Drug Distribution in Both Intracortical and Trabecular Bone of Rabbits(Springer, 2012) Turek, John; Ebetino, F. Hal; Lundy, Mark W.; Sun, Shuting; Kashemirov, Boris A.; McKenna, Charles E.; Gallant, Maxime A.; Plotkin, Lilian I.; Bellido, Teresita; Duan, Xuchen; Triffitt, James T.; Russell, R. Graham G.; Burr, David B.; Allen, Matthew R.; Anatomy, Cell Biology and Physiology, School of MedicineDifferences in the binding affinities of bisphosphonates for bone mineral have been proposed to determine their localizations and duration of action within bone. The main objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that mineral binding affinity affects bisphosphonate distribution at the basic multicellular unit (BMU) level within both cortical and cancellous bone. To accomplish this objective, skeletally mature female rabbits (n = 8) were injected simultaneously with both low- and high-affinity bisphosphonate analogs bound to different fluorophores. Skeletal distribution was assessed in the rib, tibia, and vertebra using confocal microscopy. The staining intensity ratio between osteocytes contained within the cement line of newly formed rib osteons or within the reversal line of hemiosteons in vertebral trabeculae compared to osteocytes outside the cement/reversal line was greater for the high-affinity compared to the low-affinity compound. This indicates that the low-affinity compound distributes more equally across the cement/reversal line compared to a high-affinity compound, which concentrates mostly near surfaces. These data, from an animal model that undergoes intracortical remodeling similar to humans, demonstrate that the affinity of bisphosphonates for the bone determines the reach of the drugs in both cortical and cancellous bone. ItemBisphosphonate Treatment Ameliorates Chemotherapy-Induced Bone and Muscle Abnormalities in Young Mice(Frontiers Media, 2019-11-19) Essex, Alyson L.; Pin, Fabrizio; Huot, Joshua R.; Bonewald, Lynda F.; Plotkin, Lilian I.; Bonetto, Andrea; Anatomy and Cell Biology, School of MedicineChemotherapy is frequently accompanied by several side effects, including nausea, diarrhea, anorexia and fatigue. Evidence from ours and other groups suggests that chemotherapy can also play a major role in causing not only cachexia, but also bone loss. This complicates prognosis and survival among cancer patients, affects quality of life, and can increase morbidity and mortality rates. Recent findings suggest that soluble factors released from resorbing bone directly contribute to loss of muscle mass and function secondary to metastatic cancer. However, it remains unknown whether similar mechanisms also take place following treatments with anticancer drugs. In this study, we found that young male CD2F1 mice (8-week old) treated with the chemotherapeutic agent cisplatin (2.5 mg/kg) presented marked loss of muscle and bone mass. Myotubes exposed to bone conditioned medium from cisplatin-treated mice showed severe atrophy (−33%) suggesting a bone to muscle crosstalk. To test this hypothesis, mice were administered cisplatin in combination with an antiresorptive drug to determine if preservation of bone mass has an effect on muscle mass and strength following chemotherapy treatment. Mice received cisplatin alone or combined with zoledronic acid (ZA; 5 μg/kg), a bisphosphonate routinely used for the treatment of osteoporosis. We found that cisplatin resulted in progressive loss of body weight (−25%), in line with reduced fat (−58%) and lean (−17%) mass. As expected, microCT bone histomorphometry analysis revealed significant reduction in bone mass following administration of chemotherapy, in line with reduced trabecular bone volume (BV/TV) and number (Tb.N), as well as increased trabecular separation (Tb.Sp) in the distal femur. Conversely, trabecular bone was protected when cisplatin was administered in combination with ZA. Interestingly, while the animals exposed to chemotherapy presented significant muscle wasting (~-20% vs. vehicle-treated mice), the administration of ZA in combination with cisplatin resulted in preservation of muscle mass (+12%) and strength (+42%). Altogether, these observations support our hypothesis of bone factors targeting muscle and suggest that pharmacological preservation of bone mass can benefit muscle mass and function following chemotherapy. ItemChapter Six - Molecular signaling in bone cells: Regulation of cell differentiation and survival(Elsevier, 2019-02-04) Plotkin, Lilian I.; Bruzzaniti, Angela; Biomedical Sciences and Comprehensive Care, School of DentistryThe achievement of proper bone mass and architecture, and their maintenance throughout life requires the concerted actions of osteoblasts, the bone forming cells, and osteoclasts, the bone resorbing cells. The differentiation and activity of osteoblasts and osteoclasts are regulated by molecules produced by matrix-embedded osteocytes, as well as by cross-talk between osteoblasts and osteoclasts through secreted factors. In addition, it is likely that direct contact between osteoblast and osteoclast precursors, and the contact of these cells with osteocytes and cells in the bone marrow, also modulate bone cell differentiation and function. With the advancement of molecular and genetic tools, our comprehension of the intracellular signals activated in bone cells has evolved significantly, from early suggestions that osteoblasts and osteoclasts have common precursors and that osteocytes are inert cells in the bone matrix, to the very sophisticated understanding of a network of receptors, ligands, intracellular kinases/phosphatases, transcription factors, and cell-specific genes that are known today. These advances have allowed the design and FDA-approval of new therapies to preserve and increase bone mass and strength in a wide variety of pathological conditions, improving bone health from early childhood to the elderly. We have summarized here the current knowledge on selected intracellular signal pathways activated in osteoblasts, osteocytes, and osteoclasts. ItemChronic Treatment with Multi-Kinase Inhibitors Causes Differential Toxicities on Skeletal and Cardiac Muscles(MDPI, 2019-04-23) Huot, Joshua R.; Essex, Alyson L.; Gutierrez, Maya; Barreto, Rafael; Wang, Meijing; Waning, David L.; Plotkin, Lilian I.; Bonetto, Andrea; Surgery, School of MedicineDespite recent progress, chemotherapy remains the preferred treatment for cancer. We have shown a link between anticancer drugs and the development of cachexia, i.e., body wasting accompanied by muscle loss. The multi-kinase inhibitors (MKIs) regorafenib and sorafenib, used as second-line treatment for solid tumors, are frequently accompanied by several side effects, including loss of muscle mass and strength. In the present study we aimed to investigate the molecular mechanisms associated with the occurrence of muscle toxicities in in vivo conditions. Hence, we treated 8-week old healthy CD2F1 male mice with MKIs for up to six weeks and observed decreased skeletal and cardiac muscle mass, consistent with muscle weakness. Modulation of ERK1/2 and GSK3β, as well as increased expression of markers of autophagy, previously associated with muscle atrophy conditions, were shown in skeletal muscle upon treatment with either drug. MKIs also promoted cardiac abnormalities consistent with reduced left ventricular mass, internal diameter, posterior wall thickness and stroke volume, despite unchanged overall function. Notably, different signaling pathways were affected in the heart, including reduced expression of mitochondrial proteins, and elevated AKT, GSK3β, mTOR, MEK1/2 and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Combined, our data demonstrate detrimental effects on skeletal and cardiac muscle in association with chronic administration of MKIs, although different mechanisms would seem to contribute to the cachectic phenotype in the two tissues. ItemConnexins and Pannexins in Bone and Skeletal Muscle(Springer Nature, 2017-08) Plotkin, Lilian I.; Davis, Hannah M.; Cisterna, Bruno A.; Sáez, Juan C.; Anatomy and Cell Biology, IU School of MedicinePURPOSE OF REVIEW: To discuss current knowledge on the role of connexins and pannexins in the musculoskeletal system. RECENT FINDINGS: Connexins and pannexins are crucial for the development and maintenance of both bone and skeletal muscle. In bone, the presence of connexin and more recently of pannexin channels in osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and osteocytes has been described and shown to be essential for normal skeletal development and bone adaptation. In skeletal muscles, connexins and pannexins play important roles during development and regeneration through coordinated regulation of metabolic functions via cell-to-cell communication. Further, under pathological conditions, altered expression of these proteins can promote muscle atrophy and degeneration by stimulating inflammasome activity. In this review, we highlight the important roles of connexins and pannexins in the development, maintenance, and regeneration of musculoskeletal tissues, with emphasis on the mechanisms by which these molecules mediate chemical (e.g., ATP and prostaglandin E2) and physical (e.g., mechanical stimulation) stimuli that target the musculoskeletal system and their involvement in the pathophysiological changes in both genetic and acquired diseases.