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Browsing by Author "Kohler, Rachel"
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ItemCortical porosity is elevated after a single dose of zoledronate in two rodent models of chronic kidney disease(Elsevier, 2022-02-07) Swallow, Elizabeth A.; Metzger, Corrine E.; Chen, Neal X.; Wallace, Joseph M.; Tippen, Samantha P.; Kohler, Rachel; Moe, Sharon M.; Allen, Matthew R.; Anatomy, Cell Biology and Physiology, School of MedicinePurpose: Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have high risk of fracture in part due to cortical bone deterioration. The goal of this study was to assess the impact of two different bisphosphonates and dosing regimens on cortical microstructure (porosity, thickness, area) and bone mechanical properties in animal models of CKD. Methods: In experiment 1, Male Cy/+ (CKD) rats were treated with either a single dose or ten fractionated doses of zoledronate at 18 weeks of age. Fractionated animals received 1/10th of single dose given weekly for 10 weeks, with study endpoint at 28 weeks of age. In experiment 2, male C57Bl/6 J mice were given dietary adenine (0.2%) to induce CKD. Bisphosphonate treated groups were given either a single dose of zoledronate or weekly risedronate injections for 4 weeks. Cortical microstructure was assessed via μCT and mechanical parameters evaluated by monotonic bending tests. Results: Exp 1: CKD rats had higher blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and parathyroid hormone (PTH) compared to NL littermate controls. Single dose zoledronate had significantly higher cortical porosity in CKD S.Zol (2.29%) compared to NL control (0.04%) and untreated CKD (0.14%) (p = 0.004). Exp 2: All adenine groups had significantly higher BUN and PTH compared to control mice. Mice treated with single dose zoledronate (Ad + Zol) had the highest porosity (~6%), which was significantly higher compared to either Ad or Ad + Ris (~3%; p < 0.0001) and control mice had the lowest cortical porosity (0.35%). In both experiments, mechanics were minimally affected by any bisphosphonate dosing regimen. Conclusion: A single dose of zoledronate leads to higher cortical porosity compared to more frequent dosing of bisphosphonates (fractionated zoledronate or risedronate). Bisphosphonate treatment demonstrated limited effectiveness in preventing cortical bone microstructure deterioration with mechanical parameters remaining compromised due to CKD and/or secondary hyperparathyroidism irrespective of bisphosphonate treatment. ItemThe Effect of Single Versus Group μCT on the Detection of Trabecular and Cortical Disease Phenotypes in Mouse Bones(Wiley, 2021-03-05) Kohler, Rachel; Tastad, Carli A.; Stacy, Alexander J.; Swallow, Elizabeth A.; Metzger, Corinne E.; Allen, Matthew R.; Wallace, Joseph M.; Biomedical Engineering, School of Engineering and TechnologyMicro‐computed tomography is a critical assessment tool for bone‐related preclinical research, especially in murine models. To expedite the scanning process, researchers often image multiple bones simultaneously; however, it is unknown if this impacts scan quality and alters the ability to detect differences between experimental groups. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of multibone scanning on detecting disease‐induced changes in bone microarchitecture and mineral density by group scanning two murine models with known skeletal defects: the Col1a2 G610C/+ model of osteogenesis imperfecta and an adenine‐induced model of chronic kidney disease. Adult male femurs were scanned individually and in random groups of three and eight in a Bruker Skyscan 1172 and 1176, respectively, then assessed for standard trabecular and cortical bone measures. Although scanning methodology altered raw values, with trabecular microarchitecture values more affected than cortical properties, a disease phenotype was still detectable in both group and solo scans. However, tissue mineral density in both trabecular and cortical bone was significantly impacted by group versus solo scanning. Researchers may be able to use small groupings in a single μCT scan to expedite preclinical analyses when the overall bone phenotype is large to decrease costs and increase speed of discoveries; however the details of scanning (single or group) should always be reported. ItemMorphological and mechanical characterization of bone phenotypes in the Amish G610C murine model of osteogenesis imperfecta(PLOS, 2021-08-27) Kohler, Rachel; Tastad, Carli A.; Creecy, Amy; Wallace, Joseph M.; Biomedical Engineering, School of Engineering and TechnologyOsteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a hereditary bone disease where gene mutations affect Type I collagen formation resulting in osteopenia and increased fracture risk. There are several established mouse models of OI, but some are severe and result in spontaneous fractures or early animal death. The Amish Col1a2G610C/+ (G610C) mouse model is a newer, moderate OI model that is currently being used in a variety of intervention studies, with differing background strains, sexes, ages, and bone endpoints. This study is a comprehensive mechanical and architectural characterization of bone in G610C mice bred on a C57BL/6 inbred strain and will provide a baseline for future treatment studies. Male and female wild-type (WT) and G610C mice were euthanized at 10 and 16 weeks (n = 13-16). Harvested tibiae, femora, and L4 vertebrae were scanned via micro-computed tomography and analyzed for cortical and trabecular architectural properties. Femora and tibiae were then mechanically tested to failure. G610C mice had less bone but more highly mineralized cortical and trabecular tissue than their sex- and age-matched WT counterparts, with cortical cross-sectional area, thickness, and mineral density, and trabecular bone volume, mineral density, spacing, and number all differing significantly as a function of genotype (2 Way ANOVA with main effects of sex and genotype at each age). In addition, mechanical yield force, ultimate force, displacement, strain, and toughness were all significantly lower in G610C vs. WT, highlighting a brittle phenotype. This characterization demonstrates that despite being a moderate OI model, the Amish G610C mouse model maintains a distinctly brittle phenotype and is well-suited for use in future intervention studies. ItemSkeletal manifestations in a streptozotocin-induced C57BL/6 model of Type 1 diabetes(Elsevier, 2022-08-01) Hatch, Jennifer M.; Segvich, Dyann M.; Kohler, Rachel; Wallace, Joseph M.; Biomedical Engineering, School of Engineering and TechnologyDiabetes Mellitus is a metabolic disease which profoundly affects many organ systems in the body, including the skeleton. As is often the case with biology, there are inherent differences between the sexes when considering skeletal development and disease progression and outcome. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop a protocol to reliably induce diabetes in both sexes of the C57BL/6 mouse utilizing streptozotocin (STZ) and to characterize the resulting bone phenotype. We hypothesized that destruction of the β-cells in the pancreatic islet by STZ would result in a diabetic state with downstream skeletal manifestations. Beginning at 8 weeks of age, mice were injected for 5 consecutive days with STZ (65 mg/kg males, 90 mg/kg females) dissolved in a citrate buffer. The diabetic state of the mice was monitored for 5 weeks to ensure persistent hyperglycemia and mice were euthanized at 15 weeks of age. Diabetes was confirmed through blood glucose monitoring, glucose and insulin tolerance testing, HbA1c measurement, and histological staining of the pancreas. The resulting bone phenotype was characterized using microcomputed tomography to assess bone structure, and whole bone mechanical testing to assess bone functional integrity. Mice from both sexes experienced loss of β-cell mass and increased glycation of hemoglobin, as well as reduced trabecular thickness and trabecular tissues mineral density (TMD), and reduced cortical thickness and cortical bone area fraction. In female mice the change area fraction was driven by a reduction in overall bone size while in male mice, the change was driven by increased marrow area. Males also experienced reduced cortical TMD. Mechanical bending tests of the tibiae showed significant results in females with a reduction in yield force and ultimate force driving lower work to yield and total work and a roughly 40 % reduction of stiffness. When tissue level parameters were estimated using beam theory, there was a significant reduction in yield and ultimate stresses as well as elastic modulus. The previously reported mechanistic similarity in the action of STZ on murine animals, as well as the ease of STZ administration via IP injection make this model is a strong candidate for future exploration of osteoporotic bone disease, Diabetes Mellitus, and the link between estrogen and glucose sensitivity.