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Browsing by Author "Horn, M. Ryne"
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ItemAccurate simulation of cuff electrode stimulation predicting in-vivo strength-duration thresholds(Wiley, 2022) Lazorchak, Nathaniel; Horn, M. Ryne; Muzquiz, M. Ivette; Mintch, Landan M.; Yoshida, Ken; Biomedical Engineering, School of Engineering and TechnologyBackground: In-silico experiments used to optimize and inform how peripheral nerve based electrode designs perform hold the promise of greatly reducing the guesswork with new designs as well as the number of animals used to identify and prove promising designs. Given adequate realism, in-silico experiments offer the promise of identifying putative mechanisms that further inform exploration of novel stimulation and recording techniques and their interactions with bioelectric phenomena. However, despite using validated nerve fiber models, when applied to the more complex case of an implanted extracellular electrode, the in-silico experiments often do not compare quantitatively with the results of experiments conducted in in-vivo experiments. This suggests that the accuracy/realism of the environment and the lamination of the nerve bundle plays an important role in this discrepancy. This paper describes the sensitivity of in-silico models to the electrical parameter estimates and volume conductor type used. Methods: In-vivo work was performed on rat vagus nerves (N = 2) to characterize the strength-duration curve for various peaks identified in a compound nerve action potential (CAP) measured via a needle electrode. The vagus nerve has several distinct populations of nerve fiber calibers and types. Recruitment of a fiber caliber/type generates distinct peaks that can be identified, and whose conduction delay correlates to a conduction velocity. Peaks were identified by their recruitment thresholds and associated to their conduction velocities by the conduction delays of their peaks. An in-silico analog of the in-vivo experiment was constructed and experiments were run at the two extreme volume conductor cases: (1) The nerve in-saline, and (2) the nerve in-air. The specifically targeted electrical parameters were extraneural environment (in-air versus saline submersion), the resistivity (ρ) of the epineurium and perineurium, and the relative permittivity (εr ) of those same tissues. A time varying finite element method (FEM) model of the potential distribution vs time was quantified and projected onto a modified McIntyre, Richardson, and Grill (MRG), myelinated spinal nerve, active fiber model in NEURON to identify the threshold of activation as a function of stimulus pulse amplitude versus pulse width versus fiber diameter. The in-silico results were then compared to the in-vivo results. Results: The finite element method simulations spanned two macro environments: in-saline and in-air. For these environments, the resistivities for low and high frequencies as well as two different permittivity cases were used. Between these 8 cases unique cases it was found that the most accurate combination of those variables was the in-air environment for low-frequency resistivity (ρ0 ) and ex-vivo a measured permittivity (εr,measured ) from unpublished ex-vivo experiments in canine vagal nerve, achieving a high degree of convergence (r2 = 0.96). As the in-vivo work was conducted in in-air, the in-air boundary condition test case was convergent with the in-silico results. Conclusions: The results of this investigation suggest that increasing realism in simulations begets more accurate predictions. Of particular importance are (ρ) and extraneural environment, with reactive electrical parameters becoming important for input waveforms with energy in higher frequencies. ItemCharacterization of the Electrical Properties of Mammalian Peripheral Nerve Laminae(Wiley, 2023) Horn, M. Ryne; Vetter, Christian; Bashirullah, Rizwan; Carr, Mike; Yoshida, Ken; Biomedical Engineering, School of Engineering and TechnologyBackground and objective: The intrinsic electrical material properties of the laminar components of the mammalian peripheral nerve bundle are important parameters necessary for the accurate simulation of the electrical interaction between nerve fibers and neural interfaces. Improvements in the accuracy of these parameters improve the realism of the simulation and enables realistic screening of novel devices used for extracellular recording and stimulation of mammalian peripheral nerves. This work aims to characterize these properties for mammalian peripheral nerves to build upon the resistive parameter set established by Weerasuriya et al. in 1984 for amphibian somatic peripheral nerves (frog sciatic nerve) that is currently used ubiquitously in the in-silico peripheral nerve modeling community. Methods: A custom designed characterization chamber was implemented and used to measure the radial and longitudinal impedance between 10 mHz and 50 kHz of freshly excised canine vagus nerves using four-point impedance spectroscopy. The impedance spectra were parametrically fitted to an equivalent circuit model to decompose and estimate the components of the various laminae. Histological sections of the electrically characterized nerves were then made to quantify the geometry and laminae thicknesses of the perineurium and epineurium. These measured values were then used to calculate the estimated intrinsic electrical properties, resistivity and permittivity, from the decomposed resistances and reactances. Finally, the estimated intrinsic electrical properties were used in a finite element method (FEM) model of the nerve characterization setup to evaluate the realism of the model. Results: The geometric measurements were as follows: nerve bundle (1.6 ± 0.6 mm), major nerve fascicle diameter (1.3 ± 0.23 mm), and perineurium thickness (13.8 ± 2.1 μm). The longitudinal resistivity of the endoneurium was estimated to be 0.97 ± 0.05 Ωm. The relative permittivity and resistivity of the perineurium were estimated to be 2018 ± 391 and 3.75 kΩm ± 981 Ωm, respectively. The relative permittivity and resistivity of the epineurium were found to be 9.4 × 106 ± 8.2 × 106 and 55.0 ± 24.4 Ωm, respectively. The root mean squared (RMS) error of the experimentally obtained values when used in the equivalent circuit model to determine goodness of fit against the measured impedance spectra was found to be 13.0 ± 10.7 Ω, 2.4° ± 1.3°. The corner frequency of the perineurium and epineurium were found to be 2.6 ± 1.0 kHz and 368.5 ± 761.9 Hz, respectively. A comparison between the FEM model in-silico impedance experiment against the ex-vivo methods had a RMS error of 159.0 ± 95.4 Ω, 20.7° ± 9.8°. Conclusion: Although the resistive values measured in the mammalian nerve are similar to those of the amphibian model, the relative permittivity of the laminae bring new information about the reactance and the corner frequency (frequency at peak reactance) of the peripheral nerve. The measured and estimated corner frequency are well within the range of most bioelectric signals, and are important to take into account when modeling the nerve and neural interfaces. ItemDurable scalable 3D SLA-printed cuff electrodes with high performance carbon + PEDOT:PSS-based contacts(Wiley, 2022) Doering, Onna Marie; Vetter, Christian; Alhawwash, Awadh; Horn, M. Ryne; Yoshida, Ken; Biomedical Engineering, School of Engineering and TechnologyBackground: The stimulation and recording performance of implanted neural interfaces are functions of the physical and electrical characteristics of the neural interface, its electrode material and structure. Therefore, rapid optimization of such characteristics is becoming critical in most clinical and research studies. This paper describes the development of an upgraded 3D printed cuff electrode shell design containing a novel intrinsically conductive polymer (ICP) for stimulation and recording of peripheral nerve fibers. Methods: A 3D stereolithography (SLA) printer was used to print a scalable, custom designed, C-cuff electrode and I-beam closure for accurate, rapid implementation. A novel contact consisting of a percolated carbon graphite base electrodeposited with an intrinsically conductive polymer (ICP), poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) produced a PEDOT:PSS + carbon black (CB) matrix that was used to form the electrochemical interface on the structure. Prototype device performance was tested both in-vitro and in-vivo for electrical chemical capacity, electrochemical interfacial impedance, surgical handling, and implantability. The in-vivo work was performed on the sciatic nerve of 25 anesthetized Sprague Dawley rats to demonstrate recording and stimulating ability. Results: Prototypes of different spatial geometries and number of contacts (bipolar, tripolar, and tetrapolar) were designed. The design was successfully printed with inner diameters down to 500 μm. Standard bipolar and tripolar cuffs, with a 1.3 mm inner diameter (ID), 0.5 mm contact width, 1.0 mm pitch, and a 1.5 mm end distance were used for the functional tests. This geometry was appropriate for placement on the rat sciatic nerve and enabled in-vivo testing in anesthetized rats. The contacts on the standard bipolar electrode had an area of 2.1 × 10-2 cm2 . Cyclic voltammetry on ICP coated and uncoated graphite contacts showed that the ICP increased the average charge storage capacity (CSC) by a factor of 30. The corresponding impedance at 1 Hz was slightly above 1 kΩ, a 99.99% decrease from 100 kΩ in the uncoated state. The statistical comparison of the pre- versus post-stimulation impedance measurements were not significantly different (p-value > 0.05). Conclusions: The new cuff electrode enables rapid development of cost-effective functional stimulation devices targeting nerve bundles less than 1.0 mm in diameter. This allows for recording and modulation of a low-frequency current targeted within the peripheral nervous system. ItemThe loss of STAT3 in mature osteoclasts has detrimental effects on bone structure(Public Library of Science, 2020-07-30) Davidson, Rebecca K.; Himes, Evan R.; Takigawa, Shinya; Chen, Andy; Horn, M. Ryne; Meijome, Tomas; Wallace, Joseph M.; Kacena, Melissa A.; Yokota, Hiroki; Nguyen, Andrew V.; Li, Jiliang; Biology, School of ScienceSignal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3) has recently been shown to be involved in bone development and has been implicated in bone diseases, such as Job’s Syndrome. Bone growth and changes have been known for many years to differ between sexes with male bones tending to have higher bone mass than female bones and older females tending to lose bone mass at faster rates than older males. Previous studies using conditional knock mice with Stat3 specifically deleted from the osteoblasts showed both sexes exhibited decreased bone mineral density (BMD) and strength. Using the Cre-Lox system with Cathepsin K promotor driving Cre to target the deletion of the Stat3 gene in mature osteoclasts (STAT3-cKO mice), we observed that 8-week old STAT3-cKO female femurs exhibited significantly lower BMD and bone mineral content (BMC) compared to littermate control (CN) females. There were no differences in BMD and BMC observed between male knock-out and male CN femurs. However, micro-computed tomography (μCT) analysis showed that both male and female STAT3-cKO mice had significant decreases in bone volume/tissue volume (BV/TV). Bone histomorphometry analysis of the distal femur, further revealed a decrease in bone formation rate and mineralizing surface/bone surface (MS/BS) with a significant decrease in osteoclast surface in female, but not male, STAT3-cKO mice. Profiling gene expression in an osteoclastic cell line with a knockdown of STAT3 showed an upregulation of a number of genes that are directly regulated by estrogen receptors. These data collectively suggest that regulation of STAT3 differs in male and female osteoclasts and that inactivation of STAT3 in osteoclasts affects bone turnover more in females than males, demonstrating the complicated nature of STAT3 signaling pathways in osteoclastogenesis. Drugs targeting the STAT3 pathway may be used for treatment of diseases such as Job’s Syndrome and osteoporosis. ItemA Reversible Low Frequency Alternating Current Nerve Conduction Block Applied to Mammalian Autonomic Nerves(MDPI, 2021-07) Muzquiz, M. Ivette; Mintch, Landan; Horn, M. Ryne; Alhawwash, Awadh; Bashirullah, Rizwan; Carr, Michael; Schild, John H.; Yoshida, Ken; Biomedical Engineering, School of Engineering and TechnologyElectrical stimulation can be used to modulate activity within the nervous system in one of two modes: (1) Activation, where activity is added to the neural signalling pathways, or (2) Block, where activity in the nerve is reduced or eliminated. In principle, electrical nerve conduction block has many attractive properties compared to pharmaceutical or surgical interventions. These include reversibility, localization, and tunability for nerve caliber and type. However, methods to effect electrical nerve block are relatively new. Some methods can have associated drawbacks, such as the need for large currents, the production of irreversible chemical byproducts, and onset responses. These can lead to irreversible nerve damage or undesirable neural responses. In the present study we describe a novel low frequency alternating current blocking waveform (LFACb) and measure its efficacy to reversibly block the bradycardic effect elicited by vagal stimulation in anaesthetised rat model. The waveform is a sinusoidal, zero mean(charge balanced), current waveform presented at 1 Hz to bipolar electrodes. Standard pulse stimulation was delivered through Pt-Black coated PtIr bipolar hook electrodes to evoke bradycardia. The conditioning LFAC waveform was presented either through a set of CorTec® bipolar cuff electrodes with Amplicoat® coated Pt contacts, or a second set of Pt Black coated PtIr hook electrodes. The conditioning electrodes were placed caudal to the pulse stimulation hook electrodes. Block of bradycardic effect was assessed by quantifying changes in heart rate during the stimulation stages of LFAC alone, LFAC-and-vagal, and vagal alone. The LFAC achieved 86.2±11.1% and 84.3±4.6% block using hook (N = 7) and cuff (N = 5) electrodes, respectively, at current levels less than 110 µAp (current to peak). The potential across the LFAC delivering electrodes were continuously monitored to verify that the blocking effect was immediately reversed upon discontinuing the LFAC. Thus, LFACb produced a high degree of nerve block at current levels comparable to pulse stimulation amplitudes to activate nerves, resulting in a measurable functional change of a biomarker in the mammalian nervous system. ItemStat3 in osteocytes mediates osteogenic response to loading(Elsevier, 2019-07-29) Corry, Kylie A.; Zhou, Hongkang; Brustovetsky, Tatiana; Himes, Evan R.; Bivi, Nicoletta; Horn, M. Ryne; Kitase, Yukiko; Wallace, Joseph M.; Bellido, Teresita; Brustovetsky, Nickolay; Li, Jiliang; Biology, School of ScienceSignal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) is a member of the Stat family of proteins involved in signaling in many different cell types, including osteocytes. Osteocytes are considered major mechanosensing cells in bone due to their intricate dendritic networks able to sense changes in physical force and to orchestrate the response of osteoclasts and osteoblasts. We examined the role of Stat3 in osteocytes by generating mice lacking Stat3 in these cells using the Dmp-1(8kb)-Cre promoter (Stat3cKO mice). Compared to age-matched littermate controls, Stat3cKO mice of either sex (18 weeks old) exhibit reduced bone formation indices, decreased osteoblasts and increased osteoclasts, and altered material properties, without detectable changes in bone mineral density (BMD) or content of either trabecular or cortical bone. In addition, Stat3cKO mice of either sex show significantly decreased load-induced bone formation. Furthermore, pharmacologic inhibition of Stat3 in osteocytes in vitro with WP1066 blocked the increase in cytosolic calcium induced by ATP, a mediator of the cellular responses to sheer stress. WP1066 also increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in cultured MLO-Y4 osteocytes. These data demonstrate that Stat3 is a critical mediator of mechanical signals received by osteocytes and suggest that osteocytic Stat3 is a potential therapeutic target to stimulate bone anabolism.