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Browsing by Author "Dharmakumar, Rohan"
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ItemA Patch-Wise Deep Learning Approach for Myocardial Blood Flow Quantification with Robustness to Noise and Nonrigid Motion(IEEE, 2021) Youssef, Khalid; Heydari, Bobby; Rivero, Luis Zamudio; Beaulieu, Taylor; Cheema, Karandeep; Dharmakumar, Rohan; Sharif, Behzad; Medicine, School of MedicineQuantitative analysis of dynamic contrast-enhanced cardiovascular MRI (cMRI) datasets enables the assessment of myocardial blood flow (MBF) for objective evaluation of ischemic heart disease in patients with suspected coronary artery disease. State-of-the-art MBF quantification techniques use constrained deconvolution and are highly sensitive to noise and motion-induced errors, which can lead to unreliable outcomes in the setting of high-resolution MBF mapping. To overcome these limitations, recent iterative approaches incorporate spatial-smoothness constraints to tackle pixel-wise MBF mapping. However, such iterative methods require a computational time of up to 30 minutes per acquired myocardial slice, which is a major practical limitation. Furthermore, they cannot enforce robustness to residual nonrigid motion which can occur in clinical stress/rest studies of patients with arrhythmia. We present a non-iterative patch-wise deep learning approach for pixel-wise MBF quantification wherein local spatio-temporal features are learned from a large dataset of myocardial patches acquired in clinical stress/rest cMRI studies. Our approach is scanner-independent, computationally efficient, robust to noise, and has the unique feature of robustness to motion-induced errors. Numerical and experimental results obtained using real patient data demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach.Clinical Relevance- The proposed patch-wise deep learning approach significantly improves the reliability of high-resolution myocardial blood flow quantification in cMRI by improving its robustness to noise and nonrigid myocardial motion and is up to 300-fold faster than state-of-the-art iterative approaches. ItemChronic heart failure following hemorrhagic myocardial infarction: mechanism, treatment and outlook(Shared Science Publishers, 2023-02-13) Chan, Shing Fai; Vora, Keyur; Dharmakumar, Rohan; Medicine, School of MedicineMyocardial infarction (MI), the blockage of arterial blood supply of the heart, is among the most common causes of death worldwide. Even when patients receive immediate treatment by re-opening blocked arteries, they often develop chronic heart failure (CHF) in the aftermath of MI events. Yet, the factors that contribute to the development of MI-associated CHF are poorly understood. In our recent study (Nat Commun 13:6394), we link intramyocardial hemorrhage, an injury which can occur during reperfusion of areas affected by MI, to an increased risk of CHF. Mechanistically, our data suggest that an iron-induced adverse cascade of events after hemorrhagic MI drives fatty degeneration of infarcted tissue, which ultimately contributes to negative cardiac remodeling. In this Microreview, we discuss the implications of our findings regarding the molecular mechanism, more targeted treatment options as well as perspectives in the clinical care of CHF after hemorrhagic MI. ItemDeep Learning-Based Segmentation and Uncertainty Assessment for Automated Analysis of Myocardial Perfusion MRI Datasets Using Patch-Level Training and Advanced Data Augmentation(IEEE, 2021) Yalcinkaya, Dilek Mirgun; Youssef, Khalid; Heydari, Bobby; Zamudio, Luis; Dharmakumar, Rohan; Sharif, Behzad; Medicine, School of MedicineIn this work, we develop a patch-level training approach and a task-driven intensity-based augmentation method for deep-learning-based segmentation of motion-corrected perfusion cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) datasets. Further, the proposed method generates an image-based uncertainty map thanks to a novel spatial sliding-window approach used during patch-level training, hence allowing for uncertainty quantification. Using the quantified uncertainty, we detect the out-of-distribution test data instances so that the end-user can be alerted that the test data is not suitable for the trained network. This feature has the potential to enable a more reliable integration of the proposed deep learning-based framework into clinical practice. We test our approach on external MRI data acquired using a different acquisition protocol to demonstrate the robustness of our performance to variations in pulse-sequence parameters. The presented results further demonstrate that our deep-learning image segmentation approach trained with the proposed data-augmentation technique incorporating spatiotemporal (2D+time) patches is superior to the state-of-the-art 2D approach in terms of generalization performance. ItemIntramyocardial hemorrhage drives fatty degeneration of infarcted myocardium(Springer Nature, 2022-10-27) Cokic, Ivan; Chan, Shing Fai; Guan, Xingmin; Nair, Anand R.; Yang, Hsin-Jung; Liu, Ting; Chen, Yinyin; Hernando, Diego; Sykes, Jane; Tang, Richard; Butler, John; Dohnalkova, Alice; Kovarik, Libor; Finney, Robert; Kali, Avinash; Sharif, Behzad; Bouchard, Louis S.; Gupta, Rajesh; Krishnam, Mayil Singaram; Vora, Keyur; Tamarappoo, Balaji; Howarth, Andrew G.; Kumar, Andreas; Francis, Joseph; Reeder, Scott B.; Wood, John C.; Prato, Frank S.; Dharmakumar, Rohan; Medicine, School of MedicineSudden blockage of arteries supplying the heart muscle contributes to millions of heart attacks (myocardial infarction, MI) around the world. Although re-opening these arteries (reperfusion) saves MI patients from immediate death, approximately 50% of these patients go on to develop chronic heart failure (CHF) and die within a 5-year period; however, why some patients accelerate towards CHF while others do not remains unclear. Here we show, using large animal models of reperfused MI, that intramyocardial hemorrhage - the most damaging form of reperfusion injury (evident in nearly 40% of reperfused ST-elevation MI patients) - drives delayed infarct healing and is centrally responsible for continuous fatty degeneration of the infarcted myocardium contributing to adverse remodeling of the heart. Specifically, we show that the fatty degeneration of the hemorrhagic MI zone stems from iron-induced macrophage activation, lipid peroxidation, foam cell formation, ceroid production, foam cell apoptosis and iron recycling. We also demonstrate that timely reduction of iron within the hemorrhagic MI zone reduces fatty infiltration and directs the heart towards favorable remodeling. Collectively, our findings elucidate why some, but not all, MIs are destined to CHF and help define a potential therapeutic strategy to mitigate post-MI CHF independent of MI size. ItemMiR-150 blunts cardiac dysfunction in mice with cardiomyocyte loss of β1-adrenergic receptor/β-arrestin signaling and controls a unique transcriptome(Springer Nature, 2022-12-30) Moukette, Bruno; Kawaguchi, Satoshi; Sepulveda, Marisa N.; Hayasaka, Taiki; Aonuma, Tatsuya; Liangpunsakul, Suthat; Yang, Lei; Dharmakumar, Rohan; Conway, Simon J.; Kim, Il-man; Anatomy, Cell Biology and Physiology, School of MedicineThe β1-adrenergic receptor (β1AR) is found primarily in hearts (mainly in cardiomyocytes [CMs]) and β-arrestin-mediated β1AR signaling elicits cardioprotection through CM survival. We showed that microRNA-150 (miR-150) is upregulated by β-arrestin-mediated β1AR signaling and that CM miR-150 inhibits maladaptive remodeling post-myocardial infarction. Here, we investigate whether miR-150 rescues cardiac dysfunction in mice bearing CM-specific abrogation of β-arrestin-mediated β1AR signaling. Using CM-specific transgenic (TG) mice expressing a mutant β1AR (G protein-coupled receptor kinase [GRK]–β1AR that exhibits impairment in β-arrestin-mediated β1AR signaling), we first generate a novel double TG mouse line overexpressing miR-150. We demonstrate that miR-150 is sufficient to improve cardiac dysfunction in CM-specific GRK–β1AR TG mice following chronic catecholamine stimulation. Our genome-wide circular RNA, long noncoding RNA (lncRNA), and mRNA profiling analyses unveil a subset of cardiac ncRNAs and genes as heretofore unrecognized mechanisms for beneficial actions of β1AR/β-arrestin signaling or miR-150. We further show that lncRNA Gm41664 and GDAP1L1 are direct novel upstream and downstream regulators of miR-150. Lastly, CM protective actions of miR-150 are attributed to repressing pro-apoptotic GDAP1L1 and are mitigated by pro-apoptotic Gm41664. Our findings support the idea that miR-150 contributes significantly to β1AR/β-arrestin-mediated cardioprotection by regulating unique ncRNA and gene signatures in CMs. ItemRetrospective Detection and Suppression of Dark-Rim Artifacts in First-Pass Perfusion Cardiac MRI Enabled by Deep Learning(IEEE, 2021) Unal, Hazar Benan; Beaulieu, Taylor; Rivero, Luis Zamudio; Dharmakumar, Rohan; Sharif, Behzad; Medicine, School of MedicineThe dark-rim artifact (DRA) remains an important challenge in the routine clinical use of first-pass perfusion (FPP) cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (cMRI). The DRA mimics the appearance of perfusion defects in the subendocardial wall and reduces the accuracy of diagnosis in patients with suspected ischemic heart disease. The main causes for DRA are known to be Gibbs ringing and bulk motion of the heart. The goal of this work is to propose a deep-learning-enabled automatic approach for the detection of motion-induced DRAs in FPP cMRI datasets. To this end, we propose a new algorithm that can detect the DRA in individual time frames by analyzing multiple reconstructions of the same time frame (k-space data) with varying temporal windows. In addition to DRA detection, our approach is also capable of suppressing the extent and severity of DRAs as a byproduct of the same reconstruction-analysis process. In this proof-of-concept study, our proposed method showed a good performance for automatic detection of subendocardial DRAs in stress perfusion cMRI studies of patients with suspected ischemic heart disease. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first approach that performs deep-learning-enabled detection and suppression of DRAs in cMRI.