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Browsing by Author "Cregor, Meloney"
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ItemGlucocorticoid-Induced Bone Fragility Is Prevented in Female Mice by Blocking Pyk2/Anoikis Signaling(Oxford, 2019-07) Sato, Amy Y.; Cregor, Meloney; McAndrews, Kevin; Li, Troy; Condon, Keith W.; Plotkin, Lilian I.; Bellido, Teresita; Anatomy and Cell Biology, IU School of MedicineExcess of glucocorticoids (GCs) is a leading cause of bone fragility, and therapeutic targets are sorely needed. We report that genetic deletion or pharmacological inhibition of proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 (Pyk2) prevents GC-induced bone loss by overriding GC effects of detachment-induced bone cell apoptosis (anoikis). In wild-type or vehicle-treated mice, GCs either prevented osteoclast apoptosis or promoted osteoblast/osteocyte apoptosis. In contrast, mice lacking Pyk2 [knockout (KO)] or treated with Pyk2 kinase inhibitor PF-431396 (PF) were protected. KO or PF-treated mice were also protected from GC-induced bone resorption, microarchitecture deterioration, and weakening of biomechanical properties. In KO and PF-treated mice, GC increased osteoclasts in bone and circulating tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase form 5b, an index of osteoclast number. However, bone surfaces covered by osteoclasts and circulating C-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen, an index of osteoclast function, were not increased. The mismatch between osteoclast number vs function induced by Pyk2 deficiency/inhibition was due to osteoclast detachment and anoikis. Further, GC prolongation of osteoclast lifespan was absent in KO and PF-treated osteoclasts, demonstrating Pyk2 as an intrinsic osteoclast-survival regulator. Circumventing Pyk2 activation preserves skeletal integrity by preventing GC effects on bone cell survival (proapoptotic for osteoblasts/osteocytes, antiapoptotic for osteoclasts) and GC-induced bone resorption. Thus, Pyk2/anoikis signaling as a therapeutic target for GC-induced osteoporosis. ItemNotch3 signaling between myeloma cells and osteocytes in the tumor niche promotes tumor growth and bone destruction(Elsevier, 2022) Sabol, Hayley M.; Amorim, Tânia; Ashby, Cody; Halladay, David; Anderson, Judith; Cregor, Meloney; Sweet, Megan; Nookaew, Intawat; Kurihara, Noriyoshi; Roodman, G. David; Bellido, Teresita; Delgado-Calle, Jesus; Medicine, School of MedicineIn multiple myeloma (MM), communication via Notch signaling in the tumor niche stimulates tumor progression and bone destruction. We previously showed that osteocytes activate Notch, increase Notch3 expression, and stimulate proliferation in MM cells. We show here that Notch3 inhibition in MM cells reduced MM proliferation, decreased Rankl expression, and abrogated the ability of MM cells to promote osteoclastogenesis. Further, Notch3 inhibition in MM cells partially prevented the Notch activation and increased proliferation induced by osteocytes, demonstrating that Notch3 mediates MM-osteocyte communication. Consistently, pro-proliferative and pro-osteoclastogenic pathways were upregulated in CD138+ cells from newly diagnosed MM patients with high vs. low NOTCH3 expression. These results show that NOTCH3 signaling in MM cells stimulates proliferation and increases their osteoclastogenic potential. In contrast, Notch2 inhibition did not alter MM cell proliferation or communication with osteocytes. Lastly, mice injected with Notch3 knock-down MM cells had a 50% decrease in tumor burden and a 50% reduction in osteolytic lesions than mice bearing control MM cells. Together, these findings identify Notch3 as a mediator of cell communication among MM cells and between MM cells and osteocytes in the MM tumor niche and warrant future studies to exploit Notch3 as a therapeutic target to treat MM. ItemNrf2 regulates mass accrual and the antioxidant endogenous response in bone differently depending on the sex and age(Plos, 2017-02-02) Pellegrini, Gretel Gisela; Cregor, Meloney; McAndrews, Kevin; Morales, Cynthya Carolina; McCabe, Linda Doyle; McCabe, George P.; Peacock, Munro; Burr, David; Weaver, Connie; Bellido, Teresita; Department of Anatomy & Cell Biology, IU School of MedicineAccumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is an important pathogenic mechanism underling the loss of bone mass and strength with aging and other conditions leading to osteoporosis. The transcription factor erythroid 2-related factor2 (Nrf2) plays a central role in activating the cellular response to ROS. Here, we examined the endogenous response of bone regulated by Nrf2, and its relationship with bone mass and architecture in the male and female murine skeleton. Young (3 month-old) and old (15 month-old) Nrf2 knockout (KO) mice of either sex exhibited the expected reduction in Nrf2 mRNA expression compared to wild type (WT) littermates. Nrf2 deletion did not lead to compensatory increase in Nrf1 or Nrf3, other members of this transcription factor family; and instead, Nrf1 expression was lower in KO mice. Compared to the respective WT littermate controls, female KO mice, young and old, exhibited lower expression of both detoxifying and antioxidant enzymes; young male KO mice, displayed lower expression of detoxifying enzymes but not antioxidant enzymes; and old male KO mice showed no differences in either detoxifying or antioxidant enzymes. Moreover, old male WT mice exhibited lower Nrf2 levels, and consequently lower expression of both detoxifying and antioxidant enzymes, compared to old female WT mice. These endogenous antioxidant responses lead to delayed rate of bone acquisition in female KO mice and higher bone acquisition in male KO mice as quantified by DXA and μCT, demonstrating that Nrf2 is required for full bone accrual in the female skeleton but unnecessary and even detrimental in the male skeleton. Therefore, Nrf2 regulates the antioxidant endogenous response and bone accrual differently depending on sex and age. These findings suggest that therapeutic interventions that target Nrf2 could be developed to enhance the endogenous antioxidant response in a sex- and age-selective manner. ItemProtection From Glucocorticoid-Induced Osteoporosis by Anti-Catabolic Signaling in the Absence of Sost/Sclerostin(Wiley, 2016-10) Sato, Amy Y.; Cregor, Meloney; Delgado-Calle, Jesus; Condon, Keith W.; Allen, Matthew R.; Peacock, Munro; Plotkin, Lilian I.; Bellido, Teresita; Anatomy, Cell Biology and Physiology, School of MedicineExcess of glucocorticoids, either due to disease or iatrogenic, increases bone resorption and decreases bone formation and is a leading cause of osteoporosis and bone fractures worldwide. Improved therapeutic strategies are sorely needed. We investigated whether activating Wnt/β-catenin signaling protects against the skeletal actions of glucocorticoids, using female mice lacking the Wnt/β-catenin antagonist and bone formation inhibitor Sost. Glucocorticoids decreased the mass, deteriorated the microarchitecture, and reduced the structural and material strength of bone in wild-type (WT), but not in Sost-/- mice. The high bone mass exhibited by Sost-/- mice is due to increased bone formation with unchanged resorption. However, unexpectedly, preservation of bone mass and strength in Sost-/- mice was due to prevention of glucocorticoid-induced bone resorption and not to restoration of bone formation. In WT mice, glucocorticoids increased the expression of Sost and the number of sclerostin-positive osteocytes, and altered the molecular signature of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway by decreasing the expression of genes associated with both anti-catabolism, including osteoprotegerin (OPG), and anabolism/survival, such as cyclin D1. In contrast in Sost-/- mice, glucocorticoids did not decrease OPG but still reduced cyclin D1. Thus, in the context of glucocorticoid excess, activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling by Sost/sclerostin deficiency sustains bone integrity by opposing bone catabolism despite markedly reduced bone formation and increased apoptosis. This crosstalk between glucocorticoids and Wnt/β-catenin signaling could be exploited therapeutically to halt resorption and bone loss induced by glucocorticoids and to inhibit the exaggerated bone formation in diseases of unwanted hyperactivation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. ItemTargeting Notch Inhibitors to the Myeloma Bone Marrow Niche Decreases Tumor Growth and Bone Destruction without Gut Toxicity(American Association for Cancer Research, 2021) Sabol, Hayley M.; Ferrari, Adam J.; Adhikari, Manish; Amorim, Tânia; McAndrews, Kevin; Anderson, Judith; Vigolo, Michele; Lehal, Rajwinder; Cregor, Meloney; Khan, Sharmin; Cuevas, Pedro L.; Helms, Jill A.; Kurihara, Noriyoshi; Srinivasan, Venkat; Ebetino, Frank H.; Boeckman, Robert K., Jr.; Roodman, G. David; Bellido, Teresita; Delgado-Calle, Jesus; Medicine, School of MedicineSystemic inhibition of Notch with γ-secretase inhibitors (GSI) decreases multiple myeloma tumor growth, but the clinical use of GSI is limited due to its severe gastrointestinal toxicity. In this study, we generated a GSI Notch inhibitor specifically directed to the bone (BT-GSI). BT-GSI administration decreased Notch target gene expression in the bone marrow, but it did not alter Notch signaling in intestinal tissue or induce gut toxicity. In mice with established human or murine multiple myeloma, treatment with BT-GSI decreased tumor burden and prevented the progression of multiple myeloma-induced osteolytic disease by inhibiting bone resorption more effectively than unconjugated GSI at equimolar doses. These findings show that BT-GSI has dual anti-myeloma and anti-resorptive properties, supporting the therapeutic approach of bone-targeted Notch inhibition for the treatment of multiple myeloma and associated bone disease. SIGNIFICANCE: Development of a bone-targeted Notch inhibitor reduces multiple myeloma growth and mitigates cancer-induced bone destruction without inducing the gastrointestinal toxicity typically associated with inhibition of Notch.