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Browsing by Author "Beli, Eleni"
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ItemBone Marrow-Derived Cells Restore Functional Integrity of the Gut Epithelial and Vascular Barriers in a Model of Diabetes and ACE2 Deficiency(AHA, 2019-11-08) Duan, Yaqian; Prasad, Ram; Feng, Dongni; Beli, Eleni; Calzi, Sergio Li; Longhini, Ana Leda F.; Lamendella, Regina; Floyd, Jason L.; Dupont, Mariana; Noothi, Sunil K.; Sreejit, Gopal Krishan; Athmanathan, Baskaran; Wright, Justin; Jensen, Amanda R.; Oudit, Gavin Y.; Markel, Troy A.; Nagareddy, Prabhakara R; Obukhov, Alexander G.; Grant, Maria B.; Anatomy and Cell Biology, School of MedicineRationale: There is incomplete knowledge of the impact of bone marrow (BM) cells on the gut microbiome and gut barrier function. Objective: We postulated that diabetes and systemic angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) deficiency would synergize to adversely impact both the microbiome and gut barrier function. Methods and Results: Bacterial 16S rRNA sequencing and metatranscriptomic analysis were performed on fecal samples from WT, ACE2−/y, Akita (type 1 diabetic, T1D), and ACE2−/y-Akita mice. Gut barrier integrity was assessed by immunofluorescence, and BM cell extravasation into the small intestine was evaluated by flow cytometry. In the ACE2−/y-Akita or Akita mice, the disrupted barrier was associated with reduced levels of myeloid angiogenic cells (MACs), but no increase in inflammatory monocytes was observed within the gut parenchyma. Genomic and metatranscriptomic analysis of the microbiome of ACE2−/y-Akita mice demonstrated a marked increase in peptidoglycan (PGN) producing bacteria. When compared to control cohorts treated with saline, intraperitoneal administration of MACs significantly decreased the microbiome gene expression associated with PGN biosynthesis and restored epithelial and endothelial gut barrier integrity. Also indicative of diabetic gut barrier dysfunction, increased levels of PGN and intestinal fatty acid binding protein-2 (FABP-2) were observed in plasma of human subjects with T1D (n=21) and Type 2 diabetes (T2D, n=23) compared to non-diabetic controls (n=23). Using human retinal endothelial cells, we determined that PGN activates a non-canonical Toll-like receptor-2 (TLR2) associated MyD88-ARNO-ARF6 signaling cascade, resulting in destabilization of p120-catenin and internalization of VE-cadherin as a mechanism of deleterious impact of PGN on the endothelium. Conclusion: We demonstrate for the first time that the defect in gut barrier function and dysbiosis in ACE2−/y-Akita mice can be favorably impacted by exogenous administration of MACs. ItemBone Marrow–Derived Cell Recruitment to the Neurosensory Retina and Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cell Layer Following Subthreshold Retinal Phototherapy(ARVO, 2017-10) Caballero, Sergio; Kent, David L.; Sengupta, Nilanjana; Li Calzi, Sergio; Shaw, Lynn; Beli, Eleni; Moldovan, Leni; Dominguez, James M.; Moorthy, Ramana S.; Grant, Maria B.; Medicine, School of MedicinePurpose We investigated whether subthreshold retinal phototherapy (SRPT) was associated with recruitment of bone marrow (BM)–derived cells to the neurosensory retina (NSR) and RPE layer. Methods GFP chimeric mice and wild-type (WT) mice were subjected to SRPT using a slit-lamp infrared laser. Duty cycles of 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% (0.1 seconds, 250 mW, spot size 50 μm) with 30 applications were placed 50 to 100 μm from the optic disc. In adoptive transfer studies, GFP+ cells were given intravenously immediately after WT mice received SRPT. Immunohistochemistry was done for ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule-1 (IBA-1+), CD45, Griffonia simplicifolia lectin isolectin B4, GFP or cytokeratin). Expression of Ccl2, Il1b, Il6, Hspa1a, Hsp90aa1, Cryab, Hif1a, Cxcl12, and Cxcr4 mRNA and flow cytometry of the NSR and RPE-choroid were performed. Results Within 12 to 24 hours of SRPT, monocytes were detected in the NSR and RPE-choroid. Detection of reparative progenitors in the RPE occurred at 2 weeks using flow cytometry. Recruitment of GFP+ cells to the RPE layer occurred in a duty cycle–dependent manner in chimeric mice and in mice undergoing adoptive transfer. Hspa1a, Hsp90aa1, and Cryab mRNAs increased in the NSR at 2 hours post laser; Hif1a, Cxcl12, Hspa1a increased at 4 hours in the RPE-choroid; and Ccl2, Il1b, Ifng, and Il6 increased at 12 to 24 hours in the RPE-choroid. Conclusions SRPT induces monocyte recruitment to the RPE followed by hematopoietic progenitor cell homing at 2 weeks. Recruitment occurs in a duty cycle–dependent manner and potentially could contribute to the therapeutic efficacy of SRPT. ItemConditional Deletion of Bmal1 Accentuates Microvascular and Macrovascular Injury(Elsevier, 2017-06) Bhatwadekar, Ashay D.; Beli, Eleni; Diao, Yanpeng; Chen, Jonathan; Luo, Qianyi; Alex, Alpha; Caballero, Sergio; Dominguez, James M., II; Salazar, Tatiana E.; Busik, Julia V.; Segal, Mark S.; Grant, Maria B.; Ophthalmology, School of MedicineThe brain and muscle aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator-like protein (BMAL)-1 constitutes a major transcriptional regulator of the circadian clock. Here, we explored the impact of conditional deletion of Bmal1 in endothelium and hematopoietic cells in murine models of microvascular and macrovascular injury. We used two models of Bmal1fx/fx;Tek-Cre mice, a retinal ischemia/reperfusion model and a neointimal hyperplasia model of the femoral artery. Eyes were enumerated for acellular capillaries and were stained for oxidative damage markers using nitrotyrosine immunohistochemistry. LSK (lineage-negative, stem cell antigen-1-positive, c-Kit-positive) cells were quantified and proliferation assessed. Hematopoiesis is influenced by innervation to the bone marrow, which we assessed using IHC analysis. The number of acellular capillaries increased threefold, and nitrotyrosine staining increased 1.5-fold, in the retinas of Bmal1fx/fx;Tek-Cre mice. The number of LSK cells from the Bmal1fx/fx;Tek-Cre mice decreased by 1.5-fold and was accompanied by a profound decrease in proliferative potential. Bmal1fx/fx;Tek-Cre mice also exhibited evidence of bone marrow denervation, demonstrating a loss of neurofilament-200 staining. Injured femoral arteries showed a 20% increase in neointimal hyperplasia compared with similarly injured wild-type controls. Our study highlights the importance of the circadian clock in maintaining vascular homeostasis and demonstrates that specific deletion of BMAL1 in endothelial and hematopoietic cells results in phenotypic features similar to those of diabetes. ItemCX3CR1 deficiency accelerates the development of retinopathy in a rodent model of type 1 diabetes(Springer, 2016-11) Beli, Eleni; Dominguez, James M.; Hu, Ping; Thinschmidt, Jeffrey S.; Caballero, Sergio; Calzi, Sergio Li; Luo, Defang; Shanmugam, Sumathi; Salazar, Tatiana; Duan, Yaqian; Boulton, Michael E.; Mohr, Susanna; Abcouwer, Steven F.; Saban, Daniel R.; Harrison, Jeffrey K.; Grant, Maria B.; Ophthalmology, School of MedicineIn this study, the role of CX3CR1 in the progression of diabetic retinopathy (DR) was investigated. The retinas of wild type (WT), CX3CR1 null (CX3CR1gfp/gfp, KO) and heterozygous (CX3CR1+/gfp, Het) mice were compared in the presence and absence of streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetes. CX3CR1 deficiency in STZ-KO increased vascular pathology at 4 months of diabetes, as a significant increase in acellular capillaries was observed only in the STZ-KO group. CX3CR1 deficiency and diabetes had similar effects on retinal neurodegeneration measured by an increase in DNA fragmentation. Retinal vascular pathology in STZ-KO mice was associated with increased numbers of monocyte-derived macrophages in the retina. Furthermore, compared to STZ-WT, STZ-KO mice exhibited increased numbers of inflammatory monocytes in the bone marrow and impaired homing of monocytes to the spleen. Induction of retinal IL-10 expression by diabetes was significantly less in KO mice, and when bone marrow-derived macrophages from KO mice were maintained in high glucose they expressed significantly less IL-10 and more TNF-α in response to LPS stimulation. These findings support that CX3CR1 deficiency accelerates the development of vascular pathology in DR through increased recruitment of proinflammatory myeloid cells that demonstrate reduced expression of anti-inflammatory IL-10. ItemElectroacupuncture Promotes Central Nervous System-Dependent Release of Mesenchymal Stem Cells(Wiley, 2017-05) Salazar, Tatiana E.; Richardson, Matthew R.; Beli, Eleni; Ripsch, Matthew S.; George, John; Kim, Youngsook; Duan, Yaqian; Moldovan, Leni; Yan, Yuanqing; Bhatwadekar, Ashay; Jadhav, Vaishnavi; Smith, Jared A.; McGorray, Susan; Bertone, Alicia L.; Traktuev, Dmitri O.; March, Keith L.; Colon-Perez, Luis M.; Avin, Keith; Sims, Emily; Mund, Julie A.; Case, Jamie; Deng, Shaolin; Kim, Min Su; McDavitt, Bruce; Boulton, Michael E.; Thinschmidt, Jeffrey; Calzi, Sergio Li; Fitz, Stephanie D.; Fuchs, Robyn K.; Warden, Stuart J.; McKinley, Todd; Shekhar, Anantha; Febo, Marcelo; Johnson, Phillip L.; Chang, Lung Ji; Gao, Zhanguo; Kolonin, Mikhail G.; Lai, Song; Ma, Jinfeng; Dong, Xinzhong; White, Fletcher A.; Xie, Huisheng; Yoder, Mervin C.; Grant, Maria B.; Ophthalmology, School of MedicineElectroacupuncture (EA) performed in rats and humans using limb acupuncture sites, LI-4 and LI-11, and GV-14 and GV-20 (humans) and Bai-hui (rats) increased functional connectivity between the anterior hypothalamus and the amygdala and mobilized mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into the systemic circulation. In human subjects, the source of the MSC was found to be primarily adipose tissue, whereas in rodents the tissue sources were considered more heterogeneous. Pharmacological disinhibition of rat hypothalamus enhanced sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activation and similarly resulted in a release of MSC into the circulation. EA-mediated SNS activation was further supported by browning of white adipose tissue in rats. EA treatment of rats undergoing partial rupture of the Achilles tendon resulted in reduced mechanical hyperalgesia, increased serum interleukin-10 levels and tendon remodeling, effects blocked in propranolol-treated rodents. To distinguish the afferent role of the peripheral nervous system, phosphoinositide-interacting regulator of transient receptor potential channels (Pirt)-GCaMP3 (genetically encoded calcium sensor) mice were treated with EA acupuncture points, ST-36 and LIV-3, and GV-14 and Bai-hui and resulted in a rapid activation of primary sensory neurons. EA activated sensory ganglia and SNS centers to mediate the release of MSC that can enhance tissue repair, increase anti-inflammatory cytokine production and provide pronounced analgesic relief. ItemImbalances in Mobilization and Activation of Pro-Inflammatory and Vascular Reparative Bone Marrow-Derived Cells in Diabetic Retinopathy(PloS One, 2016) Chakravarthy, Harshini; Beli, Eleni; Navitskaya, Svetlana; O'Reilly, Sandra; Wang, Qi; Kady, Nermin; Huang, Chao; Grant, Maria B.; Busik, Julia V.; Department of Ophthalmology, IU School of MedicineDiabetic retinopathy is a sight-threatening complication of diabetes, affecting 65% of patients after 10 years of the disease. Diabetic metabolic insult leads to chronic low-grade inflammation, retinal endothelial cell loss and inadequate vascular repair. This is partly due to bone marrow (BM) pathology leading to increased activity of BM-derived pro-inflammatory monocytes and impaired function of BM-derived reparative circulating angiogenic cells (CACs). We propose that diabetes has a significant long-term effect on the nature and proportion of BM-derived cells that circulate in the blood, localize to the retina and home back to their BM niche. Using a streptozotocin mouse model of diabetic retinopathy with GFP BM-transplantation, we have demonstrated that BM-derived circulating pro-inflammatory monocytes are increased in diabetes while reparative CACs are trapped in the BM and spleen, with impaired release into circulation. Diabetes also alters activation of splenocytes and BM-derived dendritic cells in response to LPS stimulation. A majority of the BM-derived GFP cells that migrate to the retina express microglial markers, while others express endothelial, pericyte and Müller cell markers. Diabetes significantly increases infiltration of BM-derived microglia in an activated state, while reducing infiltration of BM-derived endothelial progenitor cells in the retina. Further, control CACs injected into the vitreous are very efficient at migrating back to their BM niche, whereas diabetic CACs have lost this ability, indicating that the in vivo homing efficiency of diabetic CACs is dramatically decreased. Moreover, diabetes causes a significant reduction in expression of specific integrins regulating CAC migration. Collectively, these findings indicate that BM pathology in diabetes could play a role in both increased pro-inflammatory state and inadequate vascular repair contributing to diabetic retinopathy. ItemIncrease in acid sphingomyelinase level in human retinal endothelial cells and CD34+ circulating angiogenic cells isolated from diabetic individuals is associated with dysfunctional retinal vasculature and vascular repair process in diabetes(Elsevier, 2017-05) Kady, Nermin; Yan, Yuanqing; Salazar, Tatiana; Wang, Qi; Chakravarthy, Harshini; Huang, Chao; Beli, Eleni; Navitskaya, Svetlana; Grant, Maria; Busik, Julia; Ophthalmology, School of MedicineBACKGROUND: Diabetic retinopathy is a microvascular disease that results from retinal vascular degeneration and defective repair due to diabetes-induced endothelial progenitor dysfunction. OBJECTIVE: Understanding key molecular factors involved in vascular degeneration and repair is paramount for developing effective diabetic retinopathy treatment strategies. We propose that diabetes-induced activation of acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) plays essential role in retinal endothelial and CD34+ circulating angiogenic cell (CAC) dysfunction in diabetes. METHODS: Human retinal endothelial cells (HRECs) isolated from control and diabetic donor tissue and human CD34+ CACs from control and diabetic patients were used in this study. ASM messenger RNA and protein expression were assessed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. To evaluate the effect of diabetes-induced ASM on HRECs and CD34+ CACs function, tube formation, CAC incorporation into endothelial tubes, and diurnal release of CD34+ CACs in diabetic individuals were determined. RESULTS: ASM expression level was significantly increased in HRECs isolated from diabetic compared with control donor tissue, as well as CD34+ CACs and plasma of diabetic patients. A significant decrease in tube area was observed in HRECs from diabetic donors compared with control HRECs. The tube formation deficiency was associated with increased expression of ASM in diabetic HRECs. Moreover, diabetic CD34+ CACs with high ASM showed defective incorporation into endothelial tubes. Diurnal release of CD34+ CACs was disrupted with the rhythmicity lost in diabetic patients. CONCLUSION: Collectively, these findings support that diabetes-induced ASM upregulation has a marked detrimental effect on both retinal endothelial cells and CACs. ItemLong-term spironolactone treatment reduces coronary TRPC expression, vasoconstriction, and atherosclerosis in metabolic syndrome pigs(Springer, 2017) Li, Wennan; Chen, Xingjuan; Riley, Ashley M.; Hiett, S. Christopher; Temm, Constance J.; Beli, Eleni; Long, Xin; Chakraborty, Saikat; Alloosh, Mouhamad; White, Fletcher A.; Grant, Maria B.; Sturek, Michael; Obukhov, Alexander G.; Ophthalmology, School of MedicineCoronary transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) channel expression is elevated in metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, differential contribution of TRPCs to coronary pathology in MetS is not fully elucidated. We investigated the roles of TRPC1 and TRPC6 isoforms in coronary arteries of MetS pigs and determined whether long-term treatment with a mineralocorticoid receptor inhibitor, spironolactone, attenuates coronary TRPC expression and associated dysfunctions. MetS coronary arteries exhibited significant atherosclerosis, endothelial dysfunction, and increased histamine-induced contractions. Immunohistochemical studies revealed that TRPC6 immunostaining was significantly greater in the medial layer of MetS pig coronary arteries compared to that in Lean pigs, whereas little TRPC6 immunostaining was found in atheromas. Conversely, TRPC1 immunostaining was weak in the medial layer but strong in MetS atheromas, where it was predominantly localized to macrophages. Spironolactone treatment significantly decreased coronary TRPC expression and dysfunctions in MetS pigs. In vivo targeted delivery of the dominant-negative (DN)-TRPC6 cDNA to the coronary wall reduced histamine-induced calcium transients in the MetS coronary artery medial layer, implying a role for TRPC6 in mediating calcium influx in MetS coronary smooth muscles. Monocyte adhesion was increased in Lean pig coronary arteries cultured in the presence of aldosterone; and spironolactone antagonized this effect, suggesting that coronary mineralocorticoid receptor activation may regulate macrophage infiltration. TRPC1 expression in atheroma macrophages was associated with advanced atherosclerosis, whereas medial TRPC6 upregulation correlated with increased histamine-induced calcium transients and coronary contractility. We propose that long-term spironolactone treatment may be a therapeutic strategy to decrease TRPC expression and coronary pathology associated with MetS. ItemLoss of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 Exacerbates Diabetic Retinopathy by Promoting Bone Marrow Dysfunction(Wiley, 2018-09) Duan, Yaqian; Beli, Eleni; Calzi, Sergio Li; Quigley, Judith L.; Miller, Rehae C.; Moldovan, Leni; Feng, Dongni; Salazar, Tatiana E.; Hazra, Sugata; Al-Sabah, Jude; Chalam, Kakarla V.; Trinh, Thao Le Phuong; Meroueh, Marya; Markel, Troy A.; Murray, Matthew C.; Vyas, Ruchi J.; Boulton, Michael E.; Parsons-Wingerter, Patricia; Oudit, Gavin Y.; Obukhov, Alexander G.; Grant, Maria B.; Cellular and Integrative Physiology, School of MedicineAngiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is the primary enzyme of the vasoprotective axis of the renin angiotensin system (RAS). We tested the hypothesis that loss of ACE2 would exacerbate diabetic retinopathy by promoting bone marrow dysfunction. ACE2-/y were crossed with Akita mice, a model of type 1 diabetes. When comparing the bone marrow of the ACE2-/y-Akita mice to that of Akita mice, we observed a reduction of both short-term and long-term repopulating hematopoietic stem cells, a shift of hematopoiesis towards myelopoiesis, and an impairment of lineage-c-kit+ hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell (HS/PC) migration and proliferation. Migratory and proliferative dysfunction of these cells was corrected by exposure to angiotensin-1–7 (Ang-1–7), the protective peptide generated by ACE2. Over the duration of diabetes examined, ACE2 deficiency led to progressive reduction in electrical responses assessed by electroretinography and to increases in neural infarcts observed by fundus photography. Compared to Akita mice, ACE2-/y-Akita at 9-months of diabetes showed an increased number of acellular capillaries indicative of more severe diabetic retinopathy. In diabetic and control human subjects, CD34+ cells, a key bone marrow HS/PC population, were assessed for changes in mRNA levels for MAS, the receptor for Ang-1–7. Levels were highest in CD34+ cells from diabetics without retinopathy. Higher serum Ang-1–7 levels predicted protection from development of retinopathy in diabetics. Treatment with Ang-1–7 or alamandine restored the impaired migration function of CD34+ cells from subjects with retinopathy. These data support that activation of the protective RAS within HS/PCs may represent a therapeutic strategy for prevention of diabetic retinopathy. ItemLoss of Diurnal Oscillatory Rhythms in Gut Microbiota Correlates with Changes in Circulating Metabolites in Type 2 Diabetic db/db Mice(MDPI, 2019-09-29) Beli, Eleni; Prabakaran, Samantha; Krishnan, Preethi; Evans-Molina, Carmella; Grant, Maria B.; Pediatrics, School of MedicineOur hypothesis is that diabetes leads to loss of diurnal oscillatory rhythms in gut microbiota altering circulating metabolites. We performed an observational study where we compared diurnal changes of the gut microbiota with temporal changes of plasma metabolites. Metadata analysis from bacterial DNA from fecal pellets collected from 10-month old control (db/m) and type 2 diabetic (db/db) mice every 4 h for a 24-h period was used for prediction analysis. Blood plasma was collected at a day and night time points and was used for untargeted global metabolomic analysis. Feeding and activity behaviors were recorded. Our results show that while diabetic mice exhibited feeding and activity behavior similar to control mice, they exhibited a loss of diurnal oscillations in bacteria of the genus Akkermansia, Bifidobacterium, Allobaculum, Oscillospira and a phase shift in the oscillations of g.Prevotella, proteobacteria, and actinobacteria. Analysis of the circulating metabolites showed alterations in the diurnal pattern of metabolic pathways where bacteria have been implicated, such as the histidine, betaine, and methionine/cysteine pathway, mitochondrial function and the urea cycle. Functional analysis of the differential microbes revealed that during the day, when mice are asleep, the microbes of diabetic mice were enriched in processing carbon and pyruvate metabolic pathways instead of xenobiotic degradation as was observed for control mice. Altogether, our study suggests that diabetes led to loss of rhythmic oscillations of many gut microbiota with possible implications for temporal regulation of host metabolic pathways.