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Browsing by Author "Bahamonde, Rafael"
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ItemThe Effect of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction on Leg-Spring Stiffness During Hopping(2020-12) Wolfe, David K.; Bahamonde, Rafael; Streepey, Jefferson; Riley, Zachary; Naugle, Kelly; Beekley, MatthewLeg-Spring Stiffness (LSS) is the measure of the musculoskeletal, neuromuscular, and biomechanical functions of the human body, and an appropriate evaluation metric for changes brought on by Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction (ACLr). ACLr can lead to flexion and extension loss, resulting in increased stiffness of the musculotendinous units of the ACLr leg and thus changes in LSS. LSS can be measured using Kleg, but little is known about the validity and reliability of the different methods of LSS and Kleg calculations. The purpose of this study was to determine if ACLr leads to a change in LSS (as measured by Kleg) during hopping, and to compare results of the Spring-Mass calculation and knee Joint Torsional stiffness methods in the computation of the overall Kleg. Video data synchronize with GRF were used to compute the kinematic and kinetic variables. Mann-Whitney U tests were used to determine significant differences between the control and experimental group for the Spring-Mass method of calculation (p = 0.004), Joint Torsional method (p =0.44), Kknee (p = 0.29), and Kankle (p = 0.17). Cohen’s effect calculations showed small to medium effects for the KKnee, (d = 0.383) but moderate effect size for the KAnkle, (d = 0.541). Wilcoxon Signed Rank comparison for all the legs and (N=42) between computational methods were significant differences between computational methods (Z = 5.65, p = 0.000), and with a large effect size (Cohen’s d = 3.14). Similar results were found when comparing only the ACLr leg values (p = 0.005, Cohen’s d = 4.88). The comparison between ACL Leg vs Non-ACL leg for experimental group subjects was not significant in either calculation method (Spring-Mass p = 0.20, Z = -1.27; torque calculation p = 0.96, Z = -0.05). The spring-mass method was more stable and able to detect differences between the control and ACLr group. The lack of statistical differences in the joint torsion calculation method, as well as in comparing the unaffected leg to the ACLr leg in the experimental group, suggests that LSS may not be a precise enough measurement to determine the effects of an ACLr. ItemThe Effect of Locomotor Assisted Therapy on Lower Extremity Motor Performance in Typically Developing Children and Children with Cerebral Palsy(2019-05) Scheidler, Capi Seeger; Altenburger, Peter; Bahamonde, Rafael; Miller, Kristine; Hamby, DeborahBackground: Ambulation is critical to a child’s participation, development of selfconcept, and quality of life. Children with cerebral palsy (CP) frequently exhibit limitation in walking proficiency which has been identified as the primary physical disability. Traditional rehabilitative treatment techniques to improve ambulation for children with CP reveal inconsistent results. Driven gait orthosis (DGO) training is a novel approach focusing on motor learning principles that foster cortical neural plasticity. Objective: The objectives are to determine if: (i) the lower extremity muscle activation patterns of children with CP are similar to age-matched TD children in overground (OG) walking, (ii) DGO training replicates muscle activation patterns in OG ambulation in TD children, (iii) the lower extremity muscle activation patterns in OG walking of children with CP are similar to their muscle activation patterns with DGO assistance, and (iv) DGO training promotes unimpaired muscle activation patterns in children with CP. Methods: Muscle activity patterns of the rectus femoris, semitendinosus, gluteus maximus and gluteus medius were recorded in the OG and DGO walking conditions of children with CP and age-matched TD. The gait cycles were identified and the data was averaged to produce final average gait cycle time normalized values. Results: In comparing the variability of the muscle activation patterns within the subject groups, CP DGO walking was considerably lower than CP OG. In comparing the muscle activation patterns in each condition, consistent differences (p < .05) were noted in terminal stance, pre-swing and initial swing phases of gait with the DGO condition consistently revealing greater muscle unit recruitment. Conclusion: The results indicate that training in the DGO provided the ability to practice with measurably repetitive movement as evidenced by decreased variability. Consistent differences were noted in muscle activation patterns in the terminal stance, pre-swing and initial swing phases of gait when most of these muscles are primarily inactive. The alteration in ground reaction force within the DGO environment may play a role in this variance. With the goal of normalizing gait, it is important that the effect of these parameters on ground reaction forces be considered in the use of DGO rehabilitation. ItemIndividual Development Plan (IDP) for IUPUI PREP Fellows [Template](IUPUI IPREP, 2017) Bahamonde, RafaelThis is an Individual Development Plan (IDP) is a planning tool designed to help IUPUI Post-Baccalaureate Research Education Program (IPREP) Fellows identify annual progress, professional development needs, and career objectives. The IDP also serves as a valuable communication tool between the IPREP Fellows and their research Mentors. The information in the IDP was the result of evaluation of multiple IDP from other universities to create an IDP to work with the IPREP fellows and mentors. ItemThe influence of assistance in home-based exercise programs for individuals with intellectual disabilities(2017-03-08) Noerr, Kyra L.; Stanton-Nichols, Kathleen A.; Bahamonde, Rafael; Munk, Niki; Streepey, Jake; Swinford, RachelIntellectual disability (ID) is considered a high-incidence disability affecting approximately 1.2 million adults in America (Brault, 2012). Diagnosed before the age of 18, ID is characterized by poor intellectual functioning, difficulty with adaptive behaviors, and problems with activities of daily living. Adaptive behaviors include practical, social and conceptual skills. Individuals with ID may lack the ability to personally care for themselves, self-direct and display naïve decision-making capabilities. Activities of daily living, such as maintaining one’s health, are influenced by poor adaptive behaviors. Between the years of 1997 and 2008, the prevalence of developmental disabilities, including ID, has increased 2.2% and while there is research dedicated to determining the risk factors causing ID, there is a continued need to research adaptive behavior management (Boyle et al., 2011). Current research in adaptive behavior focuses on determining best practices in order to help adults with ID thrive in schools, the workplace, home, and in the community. Adaptive behaviors related to healthcare, self-direction, and personal care still continue to be an area of adversity for the population and research on prevalence of healthcare-related problems are growing (Ervin & Merrick, 2014). Health concerns increase with the severity of the ID as well as age (Moss et al., 1993; Schrojenstein et al., 1997). Over 40% of adults with ID will develop four or more chronic diseases with an increase in age (Hsieh, Rimmer, & Heller, 2012). In the typical population, there is a plethora of evidence demonstrating that regular physical activity (PA) reduces the risk for chronic diseases, specifically all-cause mortality, colon and breast cancer, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, obesity, and depression (American College of Sports Medicine, 2013). However, the number of adults with ID participating in regular PA is considerably lower than the typical population. This lack of participation increases individual risk for secondary health conditions. With diminished capabilities in adaptive behaviors, there are significant issues that affect this population’s ability for self-care and independence in health-related care. Additionally, there are limited opportunities for individuals to take steps to improve his or her ability for self-care. Improving the availability of quality instruction for PA and adherence may increase overall PA and reduce incidence and prevalence of chronic disease in adults with ID. ItemInvestigation of Indiana tennis coaches' knowledge of disordered eating and nutrition and their confidence in such knowledge(2015-12-11) Reagan, Brian Patrick; Bahamonde, Rafael; Morrone, Anastasia; Pierce, David; Beekley, MattIt is well documented that a variety of sports coaches lack nutrition knowledge. However, few studies explore their knowledge of appropriate weight loss methods, macronutrient intake, or disordered eating. Unfortunately, both college and high school coaches disseminate inaccurate nutrition and weight loss counsel to their respective athletes who are just as unknowledgeable. Further, there is little research, which only focuses on coaches of a specific sport (e.g. tennis). Thus, the primary purpose of this study was to assess high school tennis coaches' knowledge of macronutrients and disordered eating (e.g. symptoms and prevention). Other purposes included identifying confidence in knowledge and any differences between the participating coaches' knowledge and demographic variables. To address these purposes, the 27-question Nutrition and Eating Disorders in Tennis ("NET") Survey was created (and validated). The study design involved a one-time, voluntary assessment of the Indiana coaches' demographic variables, knowledge, sources of knowledge, and level of confidence (e.g. Not At All or Very Confident). Overall, the results revealed that the coaches lacked knowledge. The average score was 70.6%, which was below the criterion for adequate knowledge. Furthermore, the coaches lacked adequate knowledge in three of the five knowledge domains: Treatment and Prevention of Disordered Eating (63.6% Â± 22.9%), Disordered Eating Signs and Symptoms (60.0% Â± 21.7%), and Macronutrients (57.0% Â± 22.4%). The latter was further substantiated through the responses to scenario questions (Part 3). Specifically, the tennis coaches demonstrated a significant knowledge deficiency of carbohydrates, energy needs, and appropriate scope of practice. There was no significant difference between coaches' education level, gender, or type and knowledge. However, there was in experience; the more years coached, the lower the scores. Moreover, there was a trend of overconfidence in the most missed questions. This dissertation's data can provide basis for coaches' educational programs. ItemShock Absorption Properties of Soccer Headgear(Office of the Vice Chancellor for Research, 2015-04-17) Deer, Samantha; Riley, Jared; Streepey, Jake; Bahamonde, RafaelSoccer have gained tremendous success in the US with more than 3 million registered youth playing this year. With the concurrent increase of concussion awareness, manufactures of soccer apparel have introduced headgear to help dissipate forces from impacts with the ball as well as other surfaces such as body parts, ground, or goal posts. Most manufactures claim that such headgear can significantly reduce impact forces by as much of 50% during a collision. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the shock absorption properties of three commercially available soccer headgear [Full Gear 90 (F90), Head blast soccer band (HB), and Forcefield headband (FF)]. A drop test was used to the simulate headsurface collision. A hard medicine ball weighing 2.5 kg was dropped from distance of 1 meter onto the surface of an AMTI force platform. The force platform recorded the magnitude of the force at a sampling rate of 1000 Hz. Ten trials for each conditions (no head gear-control, F90, HB and FF) were recorded and the impulse and maximum impact force were calculate using SigmaPlot. Oneway-ANOVA were used to determine significant differences in force and impulse across headgear. Although significant difference were found between the headgears for impulse and maximum force, overall these difference were minimal. There were less than a 10% reduction in maximum force and 4% reduction in impulse. Manufacturer’s claims of 50% reduction in impact forces seem to be unfounded. There is no scientific evidence that suggest that soccer headgear reduce the risk in injuries. ItemStrategies for Broadening Participation of Underrepresented Minority Students in STEM(Office of the Vice Chancellor for Research, 2016-04-08) Jones, LeRoy; Nguyen, Kim; Shaw, Pamella; Bruozas, Meridith; Bahamonde, Rafael; Botanga, Christopher; Cole, DeborahThe Louis Stokes Midwest Center of Excellence (LSMCE) was created in 2012 to communicate evidence-based program effectiveness garnered from the Louis Stokes Alliances for Minority Participation (LSAMP) consortium to a broader audience. The goal of LSMCE is to serve as a national hub of information for scholars to access data, models, and funding opportunities in broadening the participation of underrepresented minority (URM) students in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM). The Center is comprised of three lead institutions: Chicago State University, Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis and Department of Energy-Argonne National Laboratory. The Center outcomes are: 1) development of the cLSMCE information hub to provide consistent online resources and sustained initiatives to showcase best practices in STEM teaching/learning, information dissemination and outreach; 2) faculty engagement in establishing programs, obtaining support and promoting growth across institutions; 3) student development skill-building webinars and workshops; 4) annual conferences providing LSMCE partners and LSAMP community members the opportunity to network and learn/share successful program models, celebrate student success, and be a forum for junior researchers to present in a supportive environment; and 5) partnering with key industry and corporate organizations to provide students access to internships, as well as, sponsorship of LSMCE initiatives and awards. The Center is currently in the fourth year of a five year grant and has recruited twenty Midwestern non-LSAMP schools. It has collaborated with them in developing strategies to improve their URM students’ performance, persistence and graduation in STEM degree programs. The Center also affords a professional platform for their faculty and students to participate in STEM activities. ItemValidity of IPhone Apps to Measure Knee Range of Motion in Clinical Settings(Office of the Vice Chancellor for Research, 2015-04-17) Evans, Eric; Streepey, Jake; Bahamonde, RafaelRange of motion (ROM) of joints is a measure of musculoskeletal function in clinical and athletics settings. ROM in uniaxial joints is measured using a two-arm goniometer (GON). Although GON are inexpensive and can be used in different planes, there are limitation in accuracy and reproducibility. New IPhone apps have been developed to measure ROM using photography (PT tools, Dr.Goniometer and Photogoniometer), or the accelerometry and they also provide a permanent record of the measurement. The purpose of this study to compare the accuracy of the several IPhone apps against standard clinical [goniometer (GON)] and laboratory [electro-goniometer (EGON)] methods of measuring ROM. An EGON was attached the knee of 15 subjects knee while the performed five trials of knee extensionflexion). Three photography and one accelerometer based apps were compared against the EGON. The EGON data were compared against the GON used in clinical settings. Intraclass correlation (ICC) between methods and the Bland-Altman method (BAM) of assessing clinical agreement were used to determine validity. The ICC between the EGON and GON was r =.969 and with a BAM showing good clinical agreement between the two techniques. ICC of the photography based apps ranged from (.709-.721) and the accelerometer based goniometer was .671. The results of the BAM showed moderate to poor agreement between the methods, which indicate the some of the apps may not be suitable to use in clinical settings. The small screen size of the IPhone makes it difficult to accurately identify the joints centers. Small errors on placing the joint centers can lead to large errors of the knee joint angle. Accelerometer based apps are difficult to align and can be affected by muscle and adipose tissue of leg. It is possible that photography based apps when used on an IPad will provide better accuracy and be suitable to clinical settings.