Browsing Center for Translating Research Into Practice (TRIP) by Author "Aalsma, Matthew"
Now showing 1 - 10 of 12
Results Per Page
ItemAttitudes Towards Substance Use: A Potential Mechanism in the Relationship Between Conduct Disorder and Substance Use in Detained Youth(Office of the Vice Chancellor for Research, 2016-04-08) Kolp, Haley; Hershberger, Alexandra; Aalsma, Matthew; Cyders, Melissa A.Background: There is a well-established relationship between conduct disorder and substance use, particularly in detained youth. Attitudes toward substance use predict alcohol and marijuana use; however, little research has investigated attitudes as a mechanism between conduct disorder and substance use specifically in detained youth. Methods: Ninety-three detained youth (Mean age=15; SD=1.346; Female=15.1%) completed a court ordered psychological assessment, which included the Substance Abuse Subtle Screening Inventory for Adolescents (SASSI-A) and the Youth Self Report (YSR) to assess alcohol and drug use, attitudes towards substance use, and conduct disorder symptomology. Results: Two mediation models were run using Andrew Hayes’ PROCESS to test the effect of conduct disorder on alcohol use and drug use (run in separate models) through attitudes towards substance use, controlling for age and gender. Conduct disorder directly related to positive attitudes toward substance use in the alcohol model (b=0.47, t(91)=4.45, p<.001) and drug use model (b=0.30, t(91)=3.33, p=.001). Conduct disorder directly related to alcohol use (b=0.32, t(89)=2.60, p=.02) and drug use (b=0.44, t(89)=3.04, p=0.003). Attitudes toward substance use were associated with higher alcohol use scores, (b=0.42, t(89)=3.99, p<.001) and drug use scores (b=0.27, t(89)=1.92, p=.06). The relationship between conduct disorder and alcohol use was significantly mediated by positive attitudes toward substance use (b=0.20, CI 0.04 to 0.42); however, the relationship between conduct disorder and drug use as mediated by positive attitudes towards substance use was non-significant (b=0.07, CI -0.003 to 0.24). Discussion: The results support that one way in which conduct disorder increases risk for substance use in detained youth is through increasing the likelihood of holding positive attitudes towards substance use. Modifying positive alcohol attitudes might be a prime point of intervention to avoid risks associated with substance use among conduct disordered detained youth. ItemConduct disorder symptoms and illicit drug use in juvenile justice involved youth: The reciprocal relationship between positive illicit drug use attitudes and illicit drug use(Taylor & Francis, 2018-07-03) Kolp, Haley M.; Hershberger, Alexandra R.; Sanders, Jasmyn; Um, Miji; Aalsma, Matthew; Cyders, Melissa A.; Psychology, School of ScienceConduct disorder (CD) symptoms cooccur at high rates with illicit drug use in juvenile justice involved youth, which results in poorer outcomes; however, research has not identified where best to intervene in this relationship, limiting the identification of modifiable risk factors to reduce negative effects of CD symptoms. Two mediation models were examined to investigate the potential for CD symptoms to influence a reciprocal relationship between illicit drug use and positive drug attitudes, controlling for age, gender, and race. Data were examined for 245 juvenile justice involved youth (mean age = 15.46, SD = 1.30, range 12-18, 64.9% Black, 80.4% male) who completed court-ordered psychological assessments. Findings indicate: (1) Positive attitudes toward illicit drug use significantly mediated the relationship between CD symptoms and illicit drug use (β = 0.16, CI 0.09-0.27; test for indirect effect z = 4.17, p < .001) and (2) illicit drug use significantly mediated the relationship between CD symptoms and positive attitudes toward illicit drug use (β = 0.20, CI 0.12-0.32; test for indirect effect z = 4.87, p < .001). Overall, the present study suggests that CD symptoms impart risk for illicit drug use both indirectly, through more positive attitudes toward illicit drug use, and directly, which further strengthens positive attitudes toward illicit drug use. ItemDeveloping a Multiple Caregiver Group for Caregivers of Adolescents With Disruptive Behaviors(Elsevier, 2017) Oruche, Ukamaka M.; Robb, Sheri L.; Aalsma, Matthew; Pescosolido, Bernice; Brown-Podgorski, Brittany; Burke Draucker, Claire; School of NursingThis article describes the development of a 6-week multiple caregiver group intervention for primary caregivers of adolescents diagnosed with Oppositional Defiant Disorder or Conduct Disorder in low-income African American families. The intervention is aimed at increasing the primary caregivers' self-efficacy in managing interactions within the family and especially with child serving educational, mental health, juvenile justice, and child welfare systems. Development of the intervention involved seven iterative activities performed in a collaborative effort between an interdisciplinary academic team, community engagement specialists, members of the targeted population, and clinical partners from a large public mental health system. The intervention development process described in this article can provide guidance for teams that aim to develop new mental health interventions that target specific outcomes in populations with unique needs. ItemDifferences in risk behaviours, HIV/STI testing and HIV/STI prevalence between men who have sex with men and men who have sex with both men and women in China(SAGE, 2016-09) Davis, Alissa; Best, John; Luo, Juhua; Van Der Pol, Barbara; Dodge, Brian; Meyerson, Beth; Aalsma, Matthew; Wei, Chongyi; Tucker, Joseph D.; Department of Epidemiology, Richard M. Fairbanks School of Public HealthDifferences in risk behaviours between men who have sex with men (MSM) and men who have sex with both men and women (MSMW) have important implications for HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) transmission. We examined differences in risk behaviours, HIV/STI testing, self-reported HIV/STI diagnoses, and linkage to HIV care between MSM and MSMW across China. Participants were recruited through three MSM-focused websites in China. An online survey containing items on socio-demographics, risk behaviours, testing history, self-reported HIV/STI diagnosis, and linkage to and retention in HIV care was completed from September to October 2014. Chi square tests and logistic regression analyses were conducted. MSMW were less likely to use a condom during last anal sex (p ≤ 0.01) and more likely to engage in group sex (p ≤ 0.01) and transactional sex (p ≤ 0.01) compared to MSM. Self-reported HIV/STI testing and positivity rates between MSM and MSMW were similar. Among HIV-infected MSM, there was no difference in rates of linkage to or retention in antiretroviral therapy when comparing MSM and MSMW. Chinese MSM and MSMW may benefit from different HIV and STI intervention and prevention strategies. Achieving a successful decrease in HIV/STI epidemics among Chinese MSM and MSMW will depend on the ability of targeted and culturally congruent HIV/STI control programmes to facilitate a reduction in risk behaviours. ItemFamily and Peer Influences on Substance Attitudes and Use among Juvenile Justice-Involved Youth(Springer, 2019-02) Zapolski, Tamika C. B.; Clifton, Richelle L.; Banks, Devin E.; Hershberger, Alexandra; Aalsma, Matthew; Psychology, School of ScienceJuvenile justice-involved youth experience high rates of substance use, which is concerning given associated negative consequences, including health and functional deficits. Family and peer factors are associated with a high risk of substance use among justice-involved youth. It is hypothesized that this risk process operates through pro-drug attitudes. However, limited research has been conducted on the mechanisms through which family and peer factors increase risk for substance use among juvenile justice involved youth. The current study examined both the direct and indirect effects of family and peer substance use on youth's substance use (alcohol and illicit drug use). We also examined whether this relationship differs by race. 226 detained youth (81.9% male; 74.3% Black) were recruited from an urban county in the Midwest and completed a clinical interview and substance use assessment battery. A direct effect of family/peer risk on illicit drug use was found for all youth, though the effect was stronger among White youth. Results also supported the indirect effect pathway from family/peer risk to both illicit drug use and alcohol use through pro-drug attitudes. This pathway did not vary by race. These findings suggest that interventions should focus on targeting both family/peer risk and pro-drug attitudes to reduce substance use. Given the racial difference in the direct effect of family/peer risk on illicit drug use, there may be other factors that influence risk more strongly for White youth, which warrants further investigation. ItemGetting a Grip on My Depression: How Latina Adolescents Experience, Self-Manage, and Seek Treatment for Depressive Symptoms(Sage, 2019-10) McCord Stafford, Allison; Aalsma, Matthew; Bigatti, Silvia; Oruche, Ukamaka M.; Burke Draucker, Claire; Pediatrics, School of MedicineLatina (female) adolescents are more likely to experience depressive symptoms and less likely to receive mental health services than their non-Latina White peers. We aimed to develop a framework that explains how Latina adolescents experience, self-manage, and seek treatment for depressive symptoms. Latina young women (n = 25, M age = 16.8 years) who experienced depressive symptoms during adolescence were recruited from clinical and community settings and interviewed about experiences with depressive symptoms. The framework was developed using constructivist grounded theory methods. Participants experienced a psychosocial problem that we labeled being overburdened and becoming depressed. They responded to this problem through a five-phase psychosocial process that we labeled Getting a Grip on My Depression. Family members, peer groups, and mainstream authorities were influential in how participants experienced these phases. Future research should further develop this framework in diverse samples of Latino/a youth. Clinicians can use this framework in discussions with Latina adolescents about depressive symptoms. ItemIntimate Partner Violence and Correlates With Risk Behaviors and HIV/STI Diagnoses Among Men Who Have Sex With Men and Men Who Have Sex With Men and Women in China: A Hidden Epidemic(Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer) - Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2015-07) Davis, Alissa; Best, John; Wei, Chongyi; Luo, Juhua; Van Der Pol, Barbara; Meyerson, Beth; Dodge, Brian; Aalsma, Matthew; Tucker, Joseph; Social Entrepreneurship for Sexual Health Research Group; Department of Pediatrics, IU School of MedicineBACKGROUND: Intimate partner violence (IPV) research has primarily focused on heterosexual couples but has largely ignored IPV among men who have sex with men (MSM). We examined IPV prevalence among MSM and men who have sex with men and women (MSMW) in China. METHODS: Men who have sex with men older than 16 years were recruited through 3 MSM-focused Web sites in China. An online survey containing items on sociodemographics, risk behaviors, IPV, and self-reported HIV or sexually transmitted infection diagnosis was completed. Multivariate regression was used to examine associations between IPV and risk behaviors and an HIV or sexually transmitted infection diagnosis. RESULTS: Among 610 participants, 182 (29.8%) reported experiencing at least 1 type of IPV. Men who have sex with both men and women were at significantly greater risk for IPV (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.65; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.08-2.53) compared with MSM. Men who had experienced IPV were more likely to have participated in group sex (AOR, 1.86; 95% CI, 1.08-3.21), to have had sex in exchange for gifts or money (AOR, 5.06; 95% CI, 2.47-10.35), and to report a positive HIV diagnosis (AOR, 2.59; 95% CI, 1.22-5.51). CONCLUSIONS: There is a hidden epidemic of IPV among MSM in China, especially among MSMW. The hidden nature of MSM and MSMW suggests the need for a clinical environment more conducive to disclosure. Research is needed to understand the pathways linking IPV and HIV risk among MSM to optimize the design of effective interventions. ItemMental health outcomes from direct and indirect exposure to firearm violence: A cohort study of nonfatal shooting survivors and family members(Elsevier, 2022-06-30) Magee, Lauren A.; Aalsma, Matthew; Fortenberry, J. Dennis; Gharbi, Sami; Wiehe, SarahBackground: Firearm violence is a public health crisis in the US. Beyond the survivor, firearm violence also impacts family members and communities of firearm violence survivors. Despite the known health inequities that exist among nonfatal shooting survivors, little research has focused on the mental health needs of family members of nonfatal shootings survivors. Methods: Police and Medicaid claims data linked at the individual level between January 1, 2007 – December 31, 2016 in Indianapolis, Indiana. The Medicaid case number was used to identify nonfatal shooting survivors and family members. Differences in mental health prevalence and clinical care utilization were examined in the 12-months preceding and following an index nonfatal shooting for both survivors and family members. Results were stratified by age. Results: Mental health prevalence rates increased by nearly three percent for family members of nonfatal shooting survivors in the 12-months following a nonfatal shooting, compared to the preinjury period. Among youth with a new mental health diagnosis over half were family members and no differences were observed in mental health conditions between survivors and family members. Conclusions: Findings indicate a need for improved trauma informed services and connection to mental health care for both youth survivors and family members of nonfatal shootings. ItemPTSD Symptoms Mediate the Relationship Between Sexual Abuse and Substance Use Risk in Juvenile Justice-Involved Youth(Sage, 2018-08) Sanders, Jasmyn; Hershberger, Alexandra R.; Kolp, Haley M.; Um, Miji; Aalsma, Matthew; Cyders, Melissa A.; Pediatrics, School of MedicineJuvenile justice-involved youth face disproportionate rates of sexual abuse, which increases the risk of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorders (SUDs), both of which are associated with poor long-term outcomes. The present study tested two mediation and moderation models, controlling for age, race, and history of physical abuse, with gender as a moderator, to determine whether PTSD symptoms serve as a risk factor and/or mechanism in the relationship between sexual abuse and substance use. Data were examined for 197 juvenile justice-involved youth (mean age = 15.45, 68.9% non-White, 78.4% male) that completed court-ordered psychological assessments. Results indicated that PTSD symptoms significantly mediated the relationship between sexual abuse and drug (β = 3.44, confidence interval [CI] [0.26, 7.41]; test for indirect effect z = 2.41, p = .02) and alcohol use (β = 1.42, CI [0.20, 3.46]; test for indirect effect z = 2.23, p = .03). PTSD symptoms and gender were not significant moderators. Overall, PTSD symptoms mediate the relationship between sexual abuse and SUDs in juvenile justice-involved youth, which suggests viability of targeting PTSD symptoms as a modifiable risk factor to reduce the effects of sexual abuse on substance use in this high-risk population.